HeinOnline's Tip of the Week: How to Search Across a Series of TIAS Agreements in the United States Treaties Set

Tips and Tricks, Treaties and Agreements Library

Are you looking for agreements concerning the United States contribution to Bolivia’s Cooperative Education initiatives across a series of specific TIAS agreements? In HeinOnline’s Treaties & Agreements library, you can conduct a search that allows you to look across a range of TIAS agreements by building a range query using the TIAS numbers.

As we do with most search examples, we will first take a look at the table of contents of a volume within the U.S. Treaties set. In doing this, we will open Volume 2, Part 1 (1951). You’ll notice that the description, which appears in Italics is the TIAS number, for example TIAS 2181. Understanding this will allow us to search across a range of TIAS numbers using the description field.

Using advanced search syntax, we can conduct a range query that will match documents whose field values are between the lower and upper bound specified in the query. For more details regarding the advanced search syntax, please refer to the Advanced Search Syntax Guide.

Let’s take a look at an example to illustrate this in detail. We want to search for references to the “Inter-American Educational Foundation” across TIAS 2181-TIAS 2183 in which Bolivia’s Cooperative Education agreements with the United States are presented. First, open the Advanced Search option from within the Treaties & Agreements library. Then, insert the following syntax into the search box:

description:[2181 TO 2183] AND text:”Inter-American Educational Foundation”

Range queries are not reserved for date fields and can be inclusive or exclusive of the upper and lower bounds. In this example, we have used an inclusive query by using [square brackets] to look for a phrase within TIAS 2181-TIAS 2183. When building a range query, always ensure that the “TO” between the two values is ALL CAPS. Additionally, in our example we are looking across a range of “description” fields vs. date fields because we know (from looking at the Table of Contents earlier) that the TIAS numbers make up the description field.

Now, select U.S.T. from the title listing to limit our search to only the United State Treaties set and click search. This query will look for all references to “Inter-American Educational Foundation” across TIAS 2181, TIAS 2182, and TIAS 2183.

This query returns 2 results.

Now, let’s look at another example to illustrate an exclusive range query. We want to find all agreements that were made between the United States and Paraguay in regards to Paraguay’s cooperative health and sanitation program. We specifically want to search between TIAS numbers 2385-2389. To do this, we will build an exclusive range query using {curly brackets}. Enter the following syntax into the search box:

description:{2385 TO 2389} AND text:”cooperative health and sanitation program”

This will look for all references to “cooperative health and sanitation program” that reside between TIAS 2385 and 2389, but not including those specific treaty numbers. Now, select U.S.T. from the title listing and click search.

This query returns 3 results.

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