Preview of United States Supreme Court Cases


"Brief for Alliance Defending Freedom in Support of Respondent"


"Brief for Alliance of Inventor Groups in Support of Petitioner"


"Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association Supporting Neither Party"


"Brief for Askeladden LLC in Support of Respondents"


"Brief for Border Scholars in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Certain Members Of Congress in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for Chicago Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Constitutional Law Professors in Support of Respondent"


"Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Cook Medical LLC in Support of Respondents"


"Brief for Eleven Law Professors as in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Former Officials of U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Former Police Chiefs in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Intellectual Property Owners Association in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for Johnson & Johnson and Cordis Corporation in Support of Respondent"


"Brief for Law Professors in Support of Petitioner"


"Brief for Law Professors in Support of Petitioner"


"Brief for Legal Historians in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for Medinol Ltd. in Support of Petitioner"


"Brief for Native American Organizations In Support Of Petitioner"


"Brief for Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Respondent"


"Brief for Petitioner Lee"


"Brief for Petitioner"


"Brief for Professor Gregory C. Sisk in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for Public Knowledge in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for Respondent"


"Brief for the American Bar Association in Support of Petitioner"


"Brief for The American Bar Association Supporting Neither Party"


"Brief for the American Center for Law and Justice in Support of Respondent"


"Brief for the Government of the United Mexican States in Support of Petitioners"


"Brief for the New York Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party"


"Brief for Washington Legal Foundation in Support of Respondent"


"Brief of the Electric Frontier Foundation and Public Knowledge in Support of Respon"


Addendum to Motion to File the Joint Appendix Pursuant to Rule 33.2 (for Leave to File One Volume under Seal) Filed. (November 13, 2019)


Amended Brief of Child Protective Service Workers and Their Representatives as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Amended Unopposed Motion for Leave to File Joint Appendix - Volume III under Seal


Amici Curiae Brief for the Libertarian Party of Ohio and the Center for Competitive Democracy in Support of Respondents


Amici Curiae Brief of American Historical Association, et al.


Amici Curiae Brief of Bankruptcy Law Professors Ralph Brubaker, Bruce A. Markell, Charles, W. Mooney, Jr., and Mark J. Roe in Support of Respondent


Amici Curiae Brief of Empirical Scholars in Support of Respondents


Amici Curiae Brief of Former Executive Branch Officials and Leaders including Chairs, Commissioners, and General Counsel from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, et al., in Support of the Employees


Amici Curiae Brief of International Law Scholars and Nongovernmental Organizations in Support of Respondents


Amici Curiae Brief of Professors of Federal Courts Jurisprudence, Constitutional Law, and Immigration Law in Support of Respondents


Amici Curiae Brief of Scholars Who Study the LGB Population in Support of the Employees


Amici Curiae Brief of Scholars Who Study the Transgender Population in Support of Respondent Aimee Stephens


Amici Curiae Brief of the Alliance for Community Media, et al.


Amici Curiae Brief of the American Academy of Pediatrics, California, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Medical Women's Association, the American Nurses AssociationCalifornia, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, the California Medical Association, the National Abortion Federation, the National Perinatal Association, and the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine in Support of Respondents


Amici Curiae Brief of the American Center for Law & Justice, Livingwell Medical Clinic, Inc., Pregnancy Care Center of the North Coast, Inc., and Confidence Pregnancy Center, Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Amici Curiae Brief of the National League of Cities, International City/County Management Association, and International Municipal Lawyers Association in Support of Respondents


Amici Curiae Brief of the U.S. Alcohol Policy Alliance, et al.


Amici Curiae Brief on Behalf of Isa Nichols, et al., in Support of Respondent


Amicus Brief for American Bar Association in Support of Respondents


Amicus Brief of Association of Credit & Collection Professionals (ACA) Submitted.


Amicus Brief of Boulder County, San Miguel County, and the City of Boulder, Colorado Submitted.


Amicus Brief of Citizens Equal Rights Foundation Submitted.


Amicus Brief of Floyd Abrams Institute for Freedom of Expression


Amicus Brief of Free Speech Advocates in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Brief of Legal League 100 in Support of Respondents


Amicus Brief of Mathematicians, Law Professors, and Students


Amicus Brief of Mathematicians, Law Professors, and Students


Amicus Brief of Rev. Patrick Mahoney and Free Speech Advocates in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Brief of Save Jobs USA and the Washington Alliance of Technology Workers in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Brief of Small and Mid-Size Cocoa and Chocolate Companies Submitted.


Amicus Brief of Sue Wilson, Media Action Center Submitted.


Amicus Brief of the American Center for Law and Justice in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Brief of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Amicus Curaie Brief for the National Consumer Law Center


Amicus Curiae Brief for National District Attorneys Association in Support of Respondent


Amicus Curiae Brief for of National Consumer Law Center, et al.


Amicus Curiae Brief for the National Consumer Law Center in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief from Prominent Current and Former State Executive and Judicial Officers, Law Professors, and the OCDLA, in Support of the Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of 36 Appellate Lawyers Supporting Respondents


Amicus Curiae Brief of Ahtna, Inc. in Support of Neither Party


Amicus Curiae Brief of American Catalog Mailers Association in Opposition to the Petition


Amicus Curiae Brief of American Catalog Mailers Association Supporting Respondents


Amicus Curiae Brief of Anthony Michael Sabino in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Curiae Brief of Anthony Michael Sabino Supporting the First Circuit's Ruling on the Appointments Clause Issue


Amicus Curiae Brief of Four United States Senators in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of Gregory J. Hartnett, Elizabeth M. Galaska, Robert G. Brough, Jr., and John M. Cress in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of Jane Ladley and Christopher Meier in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of Kenneth O. Simon


Amicus Curiae Brief of Law Professor Stephen Yelderman in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of Maryland Crime Victims' Resource Center Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of Maryland Crime Victims' Resource Center, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of NCTA - The Internet & Television Association in Support of Neither Party


Amicus Curiae Brief of Pregnancy Care Centers in Texas in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Curiae Brief of Procedural and Corporate Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Curiae Brief of Professor James W. Ely, Jr. and Mountain States Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of Professors and Historians Submitted


Amicus Curiae Brief of Ryan T. Anderson, Ph.D., and African-American and Civil Rights Leaders in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Curiae Brief of Security People, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Amicus Curiae Brief of the American Center for Law & Justice


Amicus Curiae Brief of the Association of Amicus Counsel, Infotech Law Offices, Isshiki & Co., and Law Offices of Hiraide & Takahashi in Support of Respondent


Amicus Curiae Brief of the Institute for Free Speech


Amicus Curiae Brief of the Institute for Free Speech in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Curiae Brief of the International Trademark Association


Amicus Curiae Brief of the Michigan Creditors Bar Association


Amicus Curiae Brief of Thomas More Law Center in Support of Petitioners


Amicus Curiae Brief of Transgender Law Center, et al., in Support of Respondent Aimee Stephens and Affirmance


Amicus Curiae Brief of Wyoming Stock Growers Association, et al.


Amicus Curiae the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty's Motion for Leave to Participate in Oral Argument as Amicus Curiae and for Divided Argument


and William C. Velasquez InstituteBrief for Professors Clayton P. Gillette and David A. Skeel, Jr. in Support of Petitioner


Appellants'?? Motion for Leave to File a Supplemental Brief and Appellants'?? Supplemental Brief Describing Post-Argument Legislative Developments


Appellees' Joint Motion for Divided Argument and Enlargement of Argument Time


Appendix


Application (17A1210) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from May 23, 2018 to July 20, 2018, Submitted to Justice Gorsuch.


Application (17A1393) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from July 4, 2018 to August 3, 2018, Submitted to Justice Ginsburg.


Application (17A550) for a Stay Pending Appeal, Submitted to Justice Kennedy.


Application (17A680) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from January 1, 2018 to March 2, 2018, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (17A824) for Leave to File the Brief of Petitioners, Brief of Respondents, and the Reply Brief on the Merits in Excess of the Word Limits, Submitted to Justice Kennedy.


Application (17A872) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from March 29, 2018 to April 30, 2018, Submitted to Justice Kennedy.


Application (18A1117) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from May 13, 2019 to June 12, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (18A1135) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from May 15, 2019 to June 14, 2019, Submitted to Justice Ginsburg.


Application (18A1168) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from May 23, 2019 to June 22, 2019, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (18A1181) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from May 26, 2019 to June 25, 2019, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (18A1182) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from May 26, 2019 to June 25, 2019, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (18A1192) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from July 16, 2019 to September 14, 2019, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (18A1224) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from June 27, 2019 to August 26, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (18A1257) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from June 10, 2019 to July 10, 2019, submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (18A130) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from September 6, 2018 to October 8, 2018, Submitted to Justice Gorsuch.


Application (18A161) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from August 13, 2018 to October 12, 2018, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (18A20) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from July 26, 2018 to August 27, 2018, Submitted to Justice Kennedy.


Application (18A417) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from November 26, 2018 to January 25, 2019, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (18A485) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from November 14, 2018 to December 14, 2018, Submitted to the Chief Justice.


Application (18A580) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from January 21, 2019 to February 21, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (18A598) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from January 17, 2019 to March 4, 2019, Submitted to Justice Thomas.


Application (18A600) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from December 18, 2018 to February 15, 2019, Submitted to Justice Ginsburg.


Application (18A774) for a Stay Pending the Filing and Disposition of a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (18A840) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from February 27, 2019 to March 29, 2019, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (18A958) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from April 3, 2019 to May 31, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A1029) of Petitioner to Extend the Time to File a Reply Brief on the Merits from April 3, 2020 to April 8, 2020, Submitted to Justice Kavanaugh.


Application (19A103) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from August 19, 2019 to September 18, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A118) for a Stay Pending the Filing and Disposition of a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (19A138) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from August 21, 2019 to October 20, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A184) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from August 26, 2019 to September 25, 2019, Submitted to Justice Sotomayor.


Application (19A185) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from August 28, 2019 to September 27, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A252) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from September 18, 2019 to October 18, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A271) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from September 19, 2019 to October 21, 2019, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (19A440) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from November 26, 2019 to January 3, 2020, Submitted to Justice Sotomayor.


Application (19A45) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from July 31, 2019 to August 30, 2019, Submitted to Justice Sotomayor.


Application (19A461) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from December 3, 2019 to January 31, 2020, Submitted to Justice Thomas.


Application (19A545) for a Stay of Mandate Pending the Filing and Disposition of a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (19A57) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from August 5, 2019 to October 4, 2019, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (19A640) to Recall and Stay Mandate Pending the Filing and Disposition of a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari, Submitted to Justice Ginsburg.


Application (19A773) to File a Consolidated Petitioners' Brief on the Merits in Excess of the Word Limit, and a Consolidated Reply Brief on the Merits in Excess of the Word Limit, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (19A781) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from January 20, 2020 to February 19, 2020, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A80) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from July 29, 2019 to August 28, 2019, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (19A861) of the Solicitor General and the Muscogee Creek Nation to File Briefs as Amicus Curiae in Excess of the Word Limit, Submitted to Justice Sotomayor.


Application (19A862) to File a Consolidated Respondents' Brief on the Merits in Excess of the Word Limit, Submitted to The Chief Justice. VIDED


Application (19A879) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from February 18, 2020 to March 19, 2020, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (19A889) to Extend the Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari from February 18, 2020 to March 19, 2020, Submitted to Justice Alito.


Application (19A894) of Presidential Electors to File a Consolidated Opening Brief on the Merits in Excess of the Word Limit, Submitted to Justice Sotomayor.


Application (20A145) to Extend the Time to File the Reply Briefs on the Merits from 2 p.m., March 19, 2021 to 2 p.m., March 21, 2021, Submitted to Justice Kagan.


Application (20A16) of Committees of U.S. House of Representatives for an Order to Issue the Judgment Forthwith, Submitted to The Chief Justice.


Application (20A17) of Cyrus R. Vance, Jr., in His Official Capacity as District Attorney of the County of New York, for an Order to Issue the Judgment Forthwith, Submitted to the Chief Justice


Application for a Stay of Execution of Sentence of Death


Application for a Stay of Execution to the Honorable Neil M. Gorsuch, as Circuit Justice


Application for a Stay of Proceedings Pending a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the Supreme Court of the State of Kansas


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit


Application for an Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorar to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the South Carolina Supreme Court


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Court


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit


Application for Extension of Time to File a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the United States Courts of Appeals for the First Circuit


Application for Extension of Time within Which to File a Petition for Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit


Application for Leave to Exceed Word Limits of Peter Bret Chiafalo, et al. Submitted.


Application to Extend Time to File a Petition for Writ of Certiorari


Application to Recall and Stay Mandate Pending the Filing and Disposition of a Petition for a Writ of Certiorari


Application to the Honorable Justice Samuel A. Alito, Jr. as Circuit Justice


Are Disparate Impact Claims Cognizable Under The Fair Housing Act: Texas Department Of Housing And Community Affairs V. Inclusive Communities Project


Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) as Amicus Curiae in Support of Petition


Brie for Former U.S. Attorneys in Support of Respondents


Brief (Supplemental) for Australian International Law Scholars in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) for BP America, Caterpillar, Conoco Phillips, General Electric, Honeywell, International Business Machines, and Monsanto in Support of Respondent


Brief (Supplemental) for Former United States Government Counterterrorism and Human Rights Officials in Support of Petitioners


Brief (Supplemental) for German Institute for Human Rights and International Law Experts in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) for International Law Scholars in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) for KBR, Inc., in Support of Respondents


Brief (Supplemental) for Navi Pillay, The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) for OTP Bank in Support of Respondents


Brief (Supplemental) for Professors Anthony J. Bellia Jr. and Bradford R. Clark in Support of Respondents


Brief (Supplemental) for Professors of International Law, Foreign Relations Law and Federal Jurisdiction in Support of Respondent


Brief (Supplemental) for Professors of Legal History, Casto, Donahue, Gordon, Hussain, Katz, Lobban, Martinez, Oldham, and Slaughter in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) for Rio Tinto Group in Support of Respondent


Brief (Supplemental) for South African Jurists in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) for the Cato Institute in Support of Respondent


Brief (Supplemental) for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in Support of Respondent


Brief (Supplemental) for US-China Law Society in Support of Respondent


Brief (Supplemental) for Yale Law School Center for Global Legal Challenges in Support of Petitioner


Brief (Supplemental) of Chevron Corporation, Dole Food Company, Dow Chemical Company, Ford Motor Company, Glaxosmithkline Plc, and the Procter & Gamble Company in Support of Respondent


Brief Altera Corporation, HTC Corporation, HTC America, Inc., Smugmug, Inc. and Weatherford International in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amici Curiae of Political Science Professors


Brief Amici Curiae for Illinois, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae for of States of Nebraska, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Montana, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wyoming, and Paul R. LePage, Governor of Maine


Brief Amici Curiae for the Cato Institute and Professor Gregory Dolin


Brief Amici Curiae for the States of Oregon, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents for the Members of the Southern Virginia Delegation to the Virginia General Assembly, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of "On-Demand" Technology Platforms


Brief Amici Curiae of 109 United States Senators and Members of the United States House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of 116 Law Librarians and 5 Law Library Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of 119 Law Students, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of 131 Current and Former State Legislators


Brief Amici Curiae of 139 Members of the United States House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of 15 Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of 161 Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of 18 States and the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of 186 Members of the United States Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of 190 Bipartisan Elected Officials, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of 197 Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of 2,556 Operation Outcry Women Hurt by Abortion and the Justice Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of 206 Businesses Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of 21 Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of 22 Cities and Counties


Brief Amici Curiae of 24 Family Policy Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of 24 States and the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of 27 Election Law, Scientific Evidence, and Empirical Legal Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of 27 Roman Catholic Lay Persons Supporting Respondents


Brief Amici Curiae of 36 Computational Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of 39 Aggrieved Inventors


Brief Amici Curiae of 39 Law Students, 24 Solo and Small-Firm Practitioners of Law, and 38 Legal Educators


Brief Amici Curiae of 44 Counties, Cities, and Towns and California State Association of Counties Filed. (in 19-840)


Brief Amici Curiae of 44 United States Senators and Members of the House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of 45 Intellectual Property Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of 47 Members of the United States Senate


Brief Amici Curiae of 65 Professors of Law, Business, Economics, and Sports Management


Brief Amici Curiae of 67 Religious Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of 76 United States Senators and Members of the House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of 81 Wine Consumers


Brief Amici Curiae of 84 United States Senators and Members of the United States House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of 92 Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of 92 Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP and AARP Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP and AARP Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP and AARP Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP and AARP Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP and AARP Foundation Supporting Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP, AARP Foundation and NELA Supporting Respondents and Urging Affirmance


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of AARP, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of ABC Television Affiliates Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Academics for the Second Amendment


Brief Amici Curiae of Access Now, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of ACLU, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Acushnet Company and Roger Cleveland Golf Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Administrative and Immigration Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Administrative Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Administrative Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Administrative, Constitutional & Intellectual Property Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Advancement Project, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Advancement Project, Juvenile Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of African American Antitrust Lawyers


Brief Amici Curiae of AI Now Institute at New York University, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Alabama Captive Insurance Association, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Alan B. Morrison & Darien Shanske in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Alan Brownstein, Melissa Rogers, and Rabbi David Saperstein


Brief Amici Curiae of Alaska Native Subsistence Users


Brief Amici Curiae of Alaskan Leader Fisheries LLC, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Alliance Defending Freedom and Christian Legal Society


Brief Amici Curiae of Alliance of Community Health Plans and Association for Community Affiliated Plans


Brief Amici Curiae of Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks & Aquariums, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks & Aquariums, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Association for Justice & Public Justice


Brief Amici Curiae of American Association for Justice and Public Justice, P.C.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists and Other Advocates for Holocaust Restitution


Brief Amici Curiae of American Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists and Other Advocates for Holocaust Restitution


Brief Amici Curiae of American Atheists, Center for Inquiry, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Bankers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Cancer Society et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Center for Law & Justice, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union and ACLU of the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of New Mexico, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union, et al. Filed. (March 18, 2020)


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union, et al


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Council on Education and Ten Other Higher Education Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of American Exploration & Production Council, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Farm Bureau Federation, National Cattlemen's Beef Association and CATL Fund


Brief Amici Curiae of American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of American Forest Resource Council et al


Brief Amici Curiae of American Forest Resource Council et al


Brief Amici Curiae of American Forest Resource Council, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Forest Resource Council, et al. Filed (December 9, 2019)


Brief Amici Curiae of American Immigration Council, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Immigration Council, et al. Filed. (Dec. 15, 2020)


Brief Amici Curiae of American Immigration Lawyers Association and National Immigrant Justice Center


Brief Amici Curiae of American Immigration Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Immigration Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Immigration Lawyers Association, the American Immigration Council, Legal Services Providers


Brief Amici Curiae of American International Group, Inc. et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Jewish Committee and United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism


Brief Amici Curiae of American Legislative Exchange Council, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Library Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Medical Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Society for Testing and Materials, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of American Society of Media Photographers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of American Statistical Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Americans for Prosperity and Yes. Every Kid.


Brief Amici Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation and TechFreedom Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation and the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of Amnesty International USA, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Andrew Rosenberg, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Anthony Daunt and Norman Shinkle


Brief Amici Curiae of Anti-Defamation League, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Anti-Defamation League, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Anti-Discrimination Scholars Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Antitrust Economists


Brief Amici Curiae of Antitrust Economists


Brief Amici Curiae of Antitrust Law And Business School Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Antitrust Law And Business School Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Antitrust Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Arbitrators, Arbitration Practitioners, and Arbitration Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Archbishop Jerome E. Listecki and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milwaukee


Brief Amici Curiae of Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Arizona Voice for Crime Victims, Inc., and Melissa Sanders


Brief Amici Curiae of Arizona, Connecticut, and 30 Other States


Brief Amici Curiae of Arizona, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Arizona, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Arkansas Pharmacists Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Arkansas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Asian Americans Advancing Justice, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Association of California Water Agencies, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Asylum Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of At-Sea Processors Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of At-Sea Processors Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Attorney General of Arizona, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Attorneys General of Arizona, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Authors and Educators


Brief Amici Curiae of Authors Guild and Other Artists' Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Auto Care Association and Static Control Components, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Bankruptcy Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Bernard Grofman and Ronald Keith Gaddie in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Bernard Grofman and Ronald Keith Gaddie in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Better Markets, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Billy Graham Evangelical Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, et al,. in Support of the Employers


Brief Amici Curiae of Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of BIMCO (Formerly the Baltic and International Maritime Council), et al. in Support of Respondents


Brief Amici Curiae of Bipartisan Economic Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Bipartisan Former Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Bipartisan Group of Current and Former Members of the House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of Bipartisan Group of Current and Former Members of the House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of Bipartisan Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Boston University Law Professors Sean J. Kealy and James J. Wheaton


Brief Amici Curiae of Boston University Law Professors Sean J. Kealy and James J. Wheaton


Brief Amici Curiae of Bradley Byrne and 119 Additional Members of the United States House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of Brady and Team ENOUGH in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Brendan Keefe, in His Official Capacity as Chief Investigative Reporter for 11Alive Atlanta, and WXIA-TV


Brief Amici Curiae of Bryndon Fisher, Bruce Reid, & Erick Shipmon in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Bryndon Fisher, et al. in Support of Neither Party Filed.(in 19-563)


Brief Amici Curiae of Building Industry Legal Defense Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Business Organizations Filed (Also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Businesses and Business Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Businesses and Business Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of California Rifle & Pistol Association, Incorporated and Gun Owners of California, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Campaign Legal Center and Issue One


Brief Amici Curiae of Campaign Legal Center and Issue One


Brief Amici Curiae of Catholic Charities of the Diocese of Springfield, Illinois, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Catholics for Choice, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Cato Institute and Cause of Action Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of Cato Institute and National Police Accountability Project


Brief Amici Curiae of Cato Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Cato Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Cause of Action Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Cayuga Nation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Biological Diversity and Defenders of Wildlife


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Democracy and Technology, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Education Reform, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Health Law & Policy Innovation of Harvard Law School, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for International Environmental Law, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Justice & Accountability and Human Rights First


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Media and Democracy and Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington


Brief Amici Curiae of Center for Workplace Compliance, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center on Race, Inequality, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Center on the Administration of Criminal Law at NYU School of Law, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Central Valley Immigrant Integration Collaborative, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Certain State Trust and Bank Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and Business Roundtable


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and Business Roundtable


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and National Retail Federation


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Chesapeake Bay Foundation and Natural Resources Defense Council


Brief Amici Curiae of CHILD USA, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Christian Legal Society et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Christian Legal Society et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Christian Legal Society, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Christian Legal Society, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Christian Legal Society, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Church of God in Christ, Inc. and Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America


Brief Amici Curiae of Church of God in Christ, Inc. and Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Church of God in Christ, Inc. and Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Church-State Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizen Equal Rights Foundation (CERF), Mille Lacs Equal Rights Foundation (MERF), and the City of Wakhon, Minnesota


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens United and Citizens United Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, English First Foundation, Public Advocate of the U.S., the Senior Citizens League, 60 Plus Foundation, Gun Owners of America, Gun Owners Foundation, et al. in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens United, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens United, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens United, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Citizens' Alliance for Property Rights Legal Fund and Inversecondemnation.com


Brief Amici Curiae of City and County of San Francisco, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of City of San Jose and the Black Alliance for Just Immigration


Brief Amici Curiae of City of San Jose, California, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of City of Staunton and Nelson County, Virginia


Brief Amici Curiae of Civ Pro, IP & Legal History Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Civil Procedure and Federal Courts Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Civil Procedure Professors Pamela K. Bookman, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Claire Finkelstein and the Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law at the University of Pennsylvania


Brief Amici Curiae of Clark Fork Coalition and Montana Environmental Information Center


Brief amici curiae of Coalition for a Sustainable Delta, et al. filed.


Brief Amici Curiae of Coalition for Jewish Values, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Coalition for Renewable Natural Gas and Producers of Renewables United for Integrity Truth and Transparency


Brief Amici Curiae of Colleagues of Professor Norman Dorsen


Brief Amici Curiae of Collective of Social Security Administration Administrative Law Judges in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of COLPA, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Columbia International University and Sixth Mount Zion Missionary Baptist Church


Brief Amici Curiae of Common Cause et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Common Cause, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Commonwealth of Virginia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Community Oncology Alliance, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Competitive Enterprise Institute, Reason Foundation, and Cascade Policy Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of Complex Litigation Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Computer & Communications Industry Association and Internet Association


Brief Amici Curiae of Computer & Communications Industry Association and TechNet


Brief Amici Curiae of Computer & Communications Industry Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Computer Security Researchers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Concerned Women for America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Congressional Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Congressmen Steve King, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Constitutional and Immigration Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Constitutional Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Constitutional Law Scholars Filed (in 18-1323)


Brief Amici Curiae of Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Constitutional Law Scholars Michael C. Dorf, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Contract Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Copyright Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Corpus Linguistics Professors and Experts


Brief Amici Curiae of Corpus-Linguistics Scholars Professors Brian Slocum, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623). VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Council for Christian Colleges and Universities and Forty Individual Religious Colleges and Universities


Brief Amici Curiae of Council for Christian Colleges and Universities, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Council of State Governments, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of County of Santa Clara, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Criminal Defense Organizations, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Criminal Defense Organizations, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Cross-Industry Groups


Brief Amici Curiae of Crow Tribe of Indians, National Congress of American Indians and Other Tribal Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Government Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Prosecutors, Department of Justice Officials, and Judges


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former State Legislators


Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Student School Board Members


Brief Amici Curiae of Current Members of Congress and Bipartisan Former Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Cyberbullying Research Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of David Lowrey, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Davis R. Robinson, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Defenders of Wildlife, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Democracy North Carolina and the People's Alliance Fund


Brief Amici Curiae of Detention Watch Network, Human Rights Defense Center and Prison Policy Initiative


Brief Amici Curiae of District of Columbia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of District of Columbia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of District of Columbia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of DKT Liberty Project, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Dorothy Frame, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Downsize DC Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Dr. Ellen J. Staurowsky, Dr. Eddie Comeaux, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Dredging Contractors of America and Council for Dredging & Marine Construction Safety


Brief Amici Curiae of DRI-The Voice of the Defense Bar, and the Professional Services Counsel-The Voice of the Government Services Industry


Brief Amici Curiae of eBay Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Economists


Brief Amici Curiae of Economists and Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Economists and Professors M. Kate Bundorf, et al. Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Economists, et al. Filed.


Brief Amici Curiae of Economists, et al. Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of EdChoice, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Edison Electric Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Edward L. Tarpley, Jr., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Eight Intellectual Property Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Eighth Amendment Scholars in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Eighty Three Computer Scientists


Brief Amici Curiae of Election Integrity Project California and Arizona


Brief Amici Curiae of Election Integrity Project California, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Frontier Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Elijah Haahr, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Elijah Haahr, et al. Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Empirical Legal Researchers


Brief Amici Curiae of Employment Discrimination Law Scholars Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Engine Advocacy and Electronic Frontier Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Entergy Operations, Inc. and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Environmental Federation of Oklahoma, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Environmental Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Erwin Chemerinsky, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Erwin Chemerinsky, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Erwin Chemerinsky, et al., in Support of Respondent


Brief Amici Curiae of Evelyn Hutchins, Flora Everett, James T. McAllister


Brief Amici Curiae of Evidence Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Faith-Based and Immigrants' Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Family Members of Soldiers Named on the Peace Cross


Brief Amici Curiae of Federal Court Scholars, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Federal Courts Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Federal Courts Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Federal Public Defender for the District of Oregon and the Oregon Criminal Defense Lawyers Association


Brief Amici Curiae of Federal Public Defenders for the Northern, Western, and Southern Districts of Texas


Brief Amici Curiae of Feminist Majority Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Fifteen Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Fifteen Pennsylvania State Senators


Brief Amici Curiae of Financial Economists


Brief Amici Curiae of Financial Investigation and Money Laundering Experts Filed (in 19-760).


Brief Amici Curiae of Firearms Policy Coalition, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Firearms Policy Foundation, Firearms Policy Coalition, and the Calguns Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of First Amendment and Education Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of First Amendment and Election Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of First Amendment and Election Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of First Focus on Children and the Children's Partnership


Brief Amici Curiae of Fishing Vessels' Reserve, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Five Indian Tribes


Brief Amici Curiae of Florida Holocaust Museum, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of FMI and Twenty-Three Retail Trade Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of Foreign International Law Scholars and Jurists


Brief Amici Curiae of Foreign Lawyers


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Census Bureau Directors


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Chief Justices of the Delaware Supreme Court


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Commissioners and Staff of the Securities and Exchange Commission


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Commissioners of the Securities and Exchange Commission


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Department of Justice Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Department of the Interior Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Directors of the U.S. Census Bureau


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Executive Branch Attorneys


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Executive Branch Officials and Leaders, et al. Filed (Also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Executive Office of Immigration Review Judges


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Executive Office of Immigration Review Judges


Brief Amici Curiae of Former FCC Commissioners


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Federal District Judges


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Federal Ethics Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Federal Judges and Department of Justice Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Federal Trade Commission Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Federal Trade Commission Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Foster Children and Foster Parents and the Catholic Association Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Foster Children and Foster Parents, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Government Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Government Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Governors of the State of Delaware


Brief Amici Curiae of Former House General Counsels and Former Congressional Staff


Brief Amici Curiae of Former INS and DHS General Counsels


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Judges, Prosecutors, and Public Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Justice Department Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former National Security Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former NCAA Executives


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Nuclear Regulators


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Republican Members of Congress, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Former SEC Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former SEC Officials and Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Secretaries of State and Secretaries of the Treasury


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Senior Department of Justice Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Former Student-Athletes


Brief Amici Curiae of Former U.S. Counterterrorism Officials, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Former United States Attorneys


Brief Amici Curiae of Former United States Attorneys


Brief Amici Curiae of Former United States Attorneys Troy A. Eid, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Former United States District Court Judges


Brief Amici Curiae of Former United States Immigration Judges and Members of the Board of Immigration Appeals


Brief Amici Curiae of Former United States Immigration Judges and Members of the Board of Immigration Appeals


Brief Amici Curiae of Foundation for Individual Rights in Education and Cato Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Foundations and Philanthropy-Serving Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Fourteen Religious-Liberty Scholars, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Fourteen State and Regional Hospital Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of Fourth Amendment Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Fourth Amendment Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Free Speech Coalition, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Freedom from Religion Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Freedom from Religion Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Freedom From Religion Foundation, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Freedom of Information Act and First Amendment Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Freeport-McMoRan Oil & Gas LLC, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists and Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amici Curiae of General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Georgia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Governor Douglas A. Ducey, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Governor Douglas A. Ducey, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Governor Douglas A. Ducey, President of the Arizona State Senate Karen Fann, and Speaker of the Arizona House of Representatives Russell Bowers


Brief Amici Curiae of Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Lawrence Joseph Hogan, Jr.


Brief Amici Curiae of Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Lawrence Joseph Hogan, Jr.


Brief Amici Curiae of Growth Energy and American Farm Bureau Federation


Brief Amici Curiae of Gun Owners of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Gun Owners of America, Gun Owners Foundation, Gun Owners of California, DownsizeDC.org, Downsize DC Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, and Restoring Liberty Action Committee


Brief Amici Curiae of Gun Owners of America, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Gun Owners of America, Inc., Gun Owners Foundation, the Heller Foundation, and Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund


Brief Amici Curiae of Harmony Allen and Protect Our Defenders


Brief Amici Curiae of Harmony Allen and Tonja Schulz


Brief Amici Curiae of Harold H. Bruff, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Harris County, Texas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Health Care Policy Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Healthcare Companies


Brief Amici Curiae of Healthcare Companies


Brief Amici Curiae of Highmark Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Highmark Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of HISD Student Congress, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians and Legal Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians and Social Scientists Margo Anderson, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians of the Census


Brief Amici Curiae of Historians, Legal Scholars, and Cherokee Nation


Brief Amici Curiae of Holly Alvarado, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Holocaust and Nuremberg Historians in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Holocaust Survivors Foundation, USA, Inc., et al. (Also in 19-351)


Brief Amici Curiae of Holocaust Survivors Foundation, USA, Inc., et al. (also in 19-351)


Brief Amici Curiae of Honorable Eugene Wedoff (ret.), et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Honorable Eugene Wedoff (ret.), et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Human Rights First and International Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Human Rights for Kids and Louisiana Center for Children's Rights


Brief Amici Curiae of Human Rights Watch and Alianza Americas


Brief Amici Curiae of Ibis Reproductive Health and Other Organizations Filed (in 18-1323).


Brief Amici Curiae of If/When/How: Lawyering for Reproductive Justice, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Ilya Somin and Sanford Levinson


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigrant Defense Project, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigrant Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigration and Human Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigration Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigration Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigration Representatives and Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Immigration Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Impact Fund, NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc., and 24 Civil Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Indiana and 19 Other States


Brief Amici Curiae of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Injured Crewmembers


Brief Amici Curiae of Inner Life Fund and Institute for Faith and Family


Brief Amici Curiae of Institutional Investors


Brief Amici Curiae of Institutional Investors


Brief Amici Curiae of Institutional Investors in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac


Brief Amici Curiae of Intellectual Property Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Intellectual Property Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Intellectual Property Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of InterACT: Advocates for Intersex Youth, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of International Brotherhood of Teamsters, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of International Business Machines Corp. et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of International Code Council, Inc. and American Gas Association


Brief Amici Curiae of International Human Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of International Law Experts


Brief Amici Curiae of International Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of International Law Scholars, Former Diplomats, and Practitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of International Lawyers


Brief Amici Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers Association (IMLA) and the International City/County Management Association (ICMA)


Brief Amici Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA, World Vision Inc., Young Life


Brief Amici Curiae of Iowa, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of James and Gail Blais, General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists


Brief Amici Curiae of Jane Bambauer, Ashutosh Bhagwat, and Eugene Volokh


Brief Amici Curiae of Jerome P. Kassirer, M.D., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Jerry and Kathy Armstrong, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of John McCurley and Dan Deforest


Brief Amici Curiae of John R. Dunne, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Jonathan F. Mitchell and Adam K. Mortara in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Judicial Watch and AEF


Brief Amici Curiae of Judicial Watch and Allied Educational Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Judicial Watch, Inc. and Allied Educational Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Judicial Watch, Inc. and Allied Educational Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Judicial Watch, Inc. and Allied Educational Foundation in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Justice and Freedom Fund, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Justice and Freedom Fund, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Juvenile Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Karen Heart and Anthony Volini of CIPLIT


Brief Amici Curiae of Kenneth B. Mehlman, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Kentucky Captive Association, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Kentucky Secretary of State Michael Adams, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Kyratso Karahalios, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Landowners


Brief Amici Curiae of LatinoJustice PRLDEF and Twelve Amici Curiae


Brief Amici Curiae of LatinoJustice PRLDEF, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Law and Economics Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Law and Education Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors James Brudney, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors Leah Litman, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors Nina Mendelson, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Law Professors with Expertise in Habeas Corpus and Civil Procedure


Brief Amici Curiae of Lawyers and Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Lawyers for Civil Rights, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights under Law, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Leading Technology Composites, Inc. and Clarkwestern Dietrich Building Systems LLC


Brief Amici Curiae of League of Wisconsin Municipalities, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Lee Chatfield, in His Official Capacity as Speaker-Elect of The Michigan House of Representatives, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Aid Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Scholars in Support of Equality in Support of Respondents


Brief Amici Curiae of Legal Services NYC, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Legislators Elijah Haahr, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ+) Members of the Legal Profession Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of LGBTQ Organizations Filed (in 18-1323) (December 3, 2019)


Brief Amici Curiae of Liberty Justice Center and American Federation for Children


Brief Amici Curiae of Liberty Justice Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Life Insurance Direct Marketing Association, American Property Casualty Insurance Association and Consumer Credit Industry Association


Brief Amici Curiae of Life Legal Defense Foundation et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Local Governments and Mayors Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Local Governments Filed (11/19/2020).


Brief Amici Curiae of Lord Conrad Black and Former Governor Robert F. McDonnell


Brief Amici Curiae of Louisiana Professors of Law


Brief Amici Curiae of Louisiana, Alabama, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, South Carolina, and Wisconsin


Brief Amici Curiae of Louisiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Madge Jones, Tony Jones, Marty Jones and Nicolle Olson


Brief Amici Curiae of Magnolia Bar Association, Mississippi Center for Justice, and Innocence Project New Orleans


Brief Amici Curiae of Major General Patrick Brady and Veterans Groups Erecting and Maintaining War Memorials


Brief Amici Curiae of Major General Patrick Brady and Veterans Groups Erecting and Maintaining War Memorials


Brief Amici Curiae of Mary Beth Tinker & John Tinker


Brief Amici Curiae of Maryland Elected Officials


Brief Amici Curiae of Maryland Elected Officials and Prince George's County


Brief Amici Curiae of Massachusetts, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Massachusetts, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Medal of Honor Recipients


Brief Amici Curiae of Medal of Honor Recipients


Brief Amici Curiae of Media Law and Policy Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Medical Staff Professionals


Brief Amici Curiae of MedShadow Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Member Countries and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress from the North Carolina Delegation


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of Congress Senator Blumenthal, Representative Smith, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of the United States House of Representatives Filed (Also in 18-1447).


Brief Amici Curiae of Members of the United States House of Representatives Filed (Also in 19-351).


Brief Amici Curiae of Michael L. Rosin & David G. Post


Brief Amici Curiae of Michael L. Rosin, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Michael L. Rosin, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Michael Stokes Paulsen and Kevin C. Walsh Filed (in 19-431).


Brief Amici Curiae of Michele Coleman Mayes, Claudia Hammerman, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Midland Credit Management, Inc. and Encore Capital Group, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Military Religious Freedom Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Minnesota, Nineteen Other States, & the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of Minnesota, Texas, 37 Other States and The District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of Modern Military Association of America and Transgender American Veterans Association Filed (Also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Mortgage Bankers Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Mortgage Bankers Association, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Mozilla Corp., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Multiple Veterans Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Muslim Bar Association of New York, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Alcohol Beverage Control Association, and National Liquor Law Enforcement Association


Brief Amici Curiae of National Asian Pacific Bar Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Ass'n for Public Defense and the National Ass'n of Federal Defenders


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Convenience Stores, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Convenience Stores, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Counties, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Counties, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Counties, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Counties, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Counties, National League of Cities, U.S. Conference of Mayors, International City/County Management Association, International Municipal Lawyers Association, National Sheriffs' Association


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Counties, National League of Cities, U.S. Conference of Mayors, International City/County Management Association, and International Municipal Lawyers Association


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and California Attorneys for Criminal Justice


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, et al. Filed


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Home Builders, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Home Builders, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Manufacturers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Manufacturers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Manufacturers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Manufacturers, et al. Filed (December 09, 2019). VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of National Association of Pupil Services Administrators and Pennsylvania Association of Pupil Services Administrators


Brief Amici Curiae of National Conference of State Legislators, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Congress of American Indians and Other Tribal Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of National Congress of American Indians, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Bankruptcy Rights Center and the National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Bankruptcy Rights Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Bankruptcy Rights Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Consumer Law Center, et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of National Council of Nonprofits, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Education Association, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of National Employment Law Project, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Employment Lawyers Association and The Employee Rights Advocacy Institute for Law & Policy


Brief Amici Curiae of National Federation of Independent Business Small Business Legal Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Federation of Independent Business, et al. filed.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Governors Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Health Law Program, et al. Filed. (December 3, 2019).


Brief Amici Curiae of National Hospital Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of National Immigrant Justice Center and American Immigration Lawyers Association


Brief Amici Curiae of National Immigration Litigation Alliance, American Civil Liberties Union, and Northwest Immigrant Rights Project


Brief Amici Curiae of National Immigration Litigation Alliance, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Indigenous Women's Resource Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Indigenous Women's Resource Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Indigenous Women's Resource Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs (COLPA), et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National League of Cities, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National League of Cities, United States Conference of Mayors, International City/County Management Association and International Municipal Lawyers Association Filed (in 19-454).


Brief Amici Curiae of National LGBT Bar Association, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of National Music Publishers' Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Organization of Social Security Claimants' Representatives, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Organization of Veterans' Advocates, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Organization of Victims of Juvenile Murderers, et al. Filed. (9/4/2020)


Brief Amici Curiae of National Parks Conservation Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Police Accountability Project, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Press Photographers Association and 25 Media and Free Speech Organizations in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amici Curiae of National School Boards Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National School Boards Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Sheriffs Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Veterans Legal Services Program, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of National Whistleblower Center


Brief Amici Curiae of National Women's Law Center and 72 Additional Organizations Committed to Equality and Economic Opportunity for Women


Brief Amici Curiae of National Women's Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Nationwide Biweekly Administration, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Natural Resources Defense Council, the Wilderness Society, and Defenders of Wildlife


Brief Amici Curiae of Natural Resources Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of New Hope Family Services, Inc. and Catholic Charities West Michigan


Brief Amici Curiae of Next-Generation Legal Research Platforms and Databases


Brief Amici Curiae of Next-Generation Legal Research Platforms and Databases and Digital Accessibility Advocate in Support of Respondent


Brief Amici Curiae of Nez Perce Tribe, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Nicholas Bagley and Samuel L. Bray Filed (in 19-454).


Brief Amici Curiae of Nicholas Bagley, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Norman Y. Mineta, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Nuremberg Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of O'Bannon Plaintiff Class Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of Oklahoma, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of ON Semiconductor Corporation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Open Markets Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Organizations and Individuals Dedicated to the Fight for Reproductive Justice - Women with a Vision et al. Filed. (December 5, 2019).


Brief Amici Curiae of Oxfam America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific and Inland Northwest Treaty Tribes


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation and Property and Environment Research Center


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, Center for Equal Opportunity, and Project 21


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Pacific Research Institute, Project for Privacy and Surveillance Accountability


Brief Amici Curiae of Pamela Underhill, Jonathan B. Jarvis, Coalition to Protect America's National Parks, and National Parks Conservation Association


Brief Amici Curiae of Parker R. Hallam and Frederick A. Voight


Brief Amici Curiae of Patrick J. Collins, Marcus J. Liotta, and William M. Hitchcock


Brief Amici Curiae of Pennsylvania School Boards Association and Pennsylvania Principals Association


Brief Amici Curiae of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA)


Brief Amici Curiae of Philanthropy Roundtable, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Philosophy Professors Filed (Also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Plaintiffs in Kravitz et al. v. United States Department of Commerce et al., No. 18-1041 (D.MD)


Brief Amici Curiae of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Players Associations of the National Football League, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Political Science Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Preemption Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Presidential Electors Mary Beth Corsentino, Stratton Rollins Heath, Jr., and Celeste Landry


Brief Amici Curiae of Print Disability Advocates


Brief Amici Curiae of Privacy International, Human and Digital Rights Organizations, and International Legal Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Professional Association for Customer Engagement and Noble Systems Corporation


Brief Amici Curiae of Professor George A. Bermann, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professor Peter N. Golder, Ph.D., and Other Marketing Academics


Brief Amici Curiae of Professor Shyamkrishna Balganesh and Professor Peter S. Menell


Brief Amici Curiae of Professor William S. Dodge and Professor Maggie Gardner Filed (also in 18-1447).


Brief Amici Curiae of Professor William S. Dodge and Professor Maggie Gardner Filed (Also in 19-351)


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors - Dean Ronald A. Cass, Christopher DeMuth, Sr., and James L. Huffman


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Alan Morrison and Brian Wolfman


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors and Historians


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Barton Beebe and Jeanne Fromer


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Benjamin G. Davis, et. al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Brian D. Feinstein and Daniel J. Hemel


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Christopher S. Elmendorf, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Daniel D. Barnhizer, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Douglas Laycock, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Douglas Laycock, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors James Pfander, Gregory Sisk & Zachary Clopton Filed. (9/11/2020)


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors John A. E. Pottow and Jay Lawrence Westbrook


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Kelly Lytle Hernandez, Mae Ngai, and Ingrid Eagly


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Martin S. Lederman, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Michael C. Dorf and Martin S. Lederman


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Administrative Law and Federal Regulation in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Civil Procedure and Federal Courts Filed (in 19-454).


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Communications Law, Policy, and Administrative Law, and Doctors of Economics and Social Science


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Federal Jurisdiction


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of International Law, Foreign Relations Law and Federal Jurisdiction


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of International Organization and International Law


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Jurisdiction


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Legal History, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Public Health and Organizations Working in Public Health Policy and Implementation


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Second Amendment Law, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Securities Law and Complex Litigation


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors of Sri Lankan Politics


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Peter S. Menell and David Nimmer


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Peter S. Menell, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Ralph Brubaker, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Samuel Estreicher and Thomas H. Lee in Support of Neither Party Filed (Also in 19-351). VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Samuel Estreicher and Thomas H. Lee in Support of Neither Party Filed (Also in 18-1447).


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Samuel Estreicher and Thomas Lee in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Walter Dellinger and Martin S. Lederman in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Professors Wesley Pegden, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Project for Privacy & Surveillance Accountability and Restore the Fourth, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Project for Privacy and Surveillance Accountability and Restore the Fourth Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Project on Government Oversight and Morton Rosenberg


Brief Amici Curiae of Property Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Advocate of the United States, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen and Public Citizen Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen and Public Citizen Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen and Public Citizen Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Collaboration for Research Integrity


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc. and Public Citizen Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Health Experts, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Health Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Health Researchers and Social Scientists


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Interest Legal Foundation et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Interest Legal Foundation, Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, Foundation for Michigan Freedom and Texas Public Policy Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Interest Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Knowledge, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Public Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Python Software Foundation and Tidelift


Brief Amici Curiae of Python Software Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of R Street Institute and Public Knowledge


Brief Amici Curiae of R Street Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of R Street Institute, et al. in Support of Respondent


Brief Amici Curiae of Rachel E. Barkow, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights and Professor Irwin Cotler


Brief Amici Curiae of RD Legal Funding Partners, LP, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Refugee Advocacy Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Religious and Civil-Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Religious and Civil-Rights Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Religious Denominations and Other Religious Institutions


Brief Amici Curiae of Religious Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Religious Organizations, Public Speakers and Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Remedies and Restitution Scholars in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Remedies, Restitution, Antitrust, and Intellectual Property Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press & 25 Media Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press & 36 Media Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press and 28 Media Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Representative Jeff Duncan and Sixty-One Additional Members of the United States House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of Reproductive Justice Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Republican National Committee and the National Republican Congressional Committee


Brief Amici Curiae of Residents and Families of Residents at Homes of the Little Sisters of the Poor


Brief Amici Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc. and National Retail Federation Filed Supporting Neither Party.


Brief Amici Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Retired Generals and Flag Officers


Brief Amici Curiae of Retired Generals and Flag Officers


Brief Amici Curiae of Retired United States District Judges


Brief Amici Curiae of Richard B. Myers and Michael G. Mullen


Brief Amici Curiae of Robert Lee Stone, Jr., and John Harvard Lomax, Jr.


Brief Amici Curiae of Roderick & Solange MacArthur Justice Center and Phillips Black, Inc., in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Ronald A. Cass & Christopher C. DeMuth, Sr.


Brief Amici Curiae of Ronald A. Cass & Christopher C. DeMuth, Sr.


Brief Amici Curiae of Rusty Bowers, Speaker of the Arizona House of Representatives, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Salesforce.com, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of San Remo Hotel, L.P., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Sanctuary for Families, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars and Academics of Constitutional Law


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars of Criminal Law Filed. (5/31/2019)


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars of Habeas Corpus Law


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars of the Constitutional Rights and Interests of Children


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars of the Law of Habeas Corpus


Brief Amici Curiae of Scholars Whose Work Includes Sex Offense Studies


Brief Amici Curiae of School Discipline Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Scientists


Brief Amici Curiae of Second Amendment Law Center, Inc., California Rifle and Pistol Association, Gun Owners of California


Brief Amici Curiae of Second Amendment Law Professors in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Securities and Financial Markets Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Securities Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Self-Help Credit Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Senator Mike Lee, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Senator Ted Cruz and Ten Other Members of the United States Senate


Brief Amici Curiae of Senator Tom Cotton, Senator Jim Inhofe, and Senator Ted Cruz


Brief Amici Curiae of Senators Steve Daines, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Senators Whitehouse, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Separation of Powers Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Separation-of-Powers Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Service Employees International Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Seventeen Oklahoma District Attorneys, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Seventy Two Intellectual Property Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Sixty Five Intellectual Property Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Small and Mid-Size Cocoa and Chocolate Companies


Brief Amici Curiae of Small Business Owners


Brief Amici Curiae of Small, Medium, and Open Source Technology Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Social Science Researchers


Brief Amici Curiae of Social Security, Government Benefit Program and Administrative Law Professors and Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Software and System Developers and Engineers for United States Government Agencies


Brief Amici Curiae of Software Innovators, Startups, and Investors


Brief Amici Curiae of Sonoma County District Attorney's Office and California District Attorneys Association


Brief Amici Curiae of South Dakota and 44 States and the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of South Dakota, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation and National Federation of Independent Business Small Business Legal Center


Brief Amici Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation and the Beacon Center of Tennessee


Brief Amici Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Sports Economists


Brief Amici Curiae of State and Local Government Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of State and Local Government Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of State and Local Government Associations


Brief Amici Curiae of State and Local Government Groups


Brief Amici Curiae of State National Bank of Big Spring, the Competitive Enterprise Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Alaska, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Alaska, et al. Filed (in 19-267).


Brief Amici Curiae of State of California, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of California, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Colorado, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Illinois, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Indiana and 44 Other States


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of New Mexico et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of North Carolina, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Oklahoma, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Oklahoma, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of South Dakota, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Utah, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of Vermont, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of West Virginia and 29 Other States


Brief Amici Curiae of State of West Virginia, 27 Other States & the Governor of Kentucky


Brief Amici Curiae of State of West Virginia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of State of West Virginia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Alabama, Arkansas, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Montana, Nevada, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wyoming


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Arizona et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of California, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of California, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Illinois et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Illinois, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Illinois, New York, et al. Filed (also 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Iowa, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Kansas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Louisiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Louisiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Nebraska, Arizona, and Ohio


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Nevada, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of New York, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia and the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of States of New York, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of New York, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Ohio, Alabama, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Ohio, Alabama, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Ohio, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Oklahoma, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Oregon, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Texas, Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wyoming


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Texas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Texas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Texas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Texas, et al. Filed (Aug. 6, 2019) (Corrected Version Submitted)


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Utah, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of States of Utah, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Statutory Construction Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Statutory Interpretation and Equality Law Scholars Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Statutory Interpretation Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Stephen C. Connaker and the Military and Veterans' Law Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of Stephen Wise Temple and Milwaukee Jewish Day School


Brief Amici Curiae of Steve Viscelli, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Student Press Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Survey Scholars and Consultants


Brief Amici Curiae of Tahirih Justice Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Takings and Federal Courts Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Tax Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Teachers, School Administrators, and the National Council of Teachers of English


Brief Amici Curiae of Technology Companies


Brief Amici Curiae of Ten Law School Professors and the Ethics Bureau at Yale


Brief Amici Curiae of Tennessee Coalition for Open Government and Human Rights Defense Center


Brief Amici Curiae of Texas, Iowa, and 29 Other States


Brief Amici Curiae of the 1939 Society, et al. Filed (also in 18-1447)


Brief Amici Curiae of the 1939 Society, et al. Filed (Also in 19-351).


Brief Amici Curiae of the ABC Television Affiliates Association, the CBS Television Network Affiliates Association, the FBC Television Affiliates Association, and the NBC Television Affiliates


Brief Amici Curiae of the ACLU Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Advocates for Human Rights and the World Coalition against the Death Penalty


Brief Amici Curiae of the Alliance for Automobile Innovation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Association for Justice, the Cato Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Pediatricians, and Christian Medical Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and ACLU of Wisconsin


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU Foundation of Louisiana, in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of Louisiana Filed (in 18-1323).


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of Missouri


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of New Mexico,


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of Puerto Rico, Supporting the First Circuit's Ruling on the Appointments Clause Issue


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of the District of Columbia


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union, and the New York Civil Liberties Union


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union, New York Civil Liberties Union, and National Coalition against Censorship, in Support of Respondents


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Liberties, et al., in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Civil Rights Union and Southeastern Legal Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Farm Bureau Federation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Hospital Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Library Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the American Medical Association, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of the Arizona Capital Representation Project and Arizona Attorneys for Criminal Justice


Brief Amici Curiae of the Association of Classical Christian Schools, et al.,


Brief Amici Curiae of the Bruderhof, United Sikhs, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), the Islam & Religious Freedom Action Team of the Religious Freedom Institute, and Asma Uddin


Brief Amici Curiae of the Catholic Association Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of New York, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute and Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute, et al. Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of the Cato Institute, et. al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Center for Democracy and Technology and Cato Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of the Center for Democracy and Technology, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and International Group of P&I Clubs


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and the American Benefits Council


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, the American Benefits Council, and the ERISA Industry Committee


Brief Amici Curiae of the Christian and Missionary Alliance, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Delaware State Bar Association


Brief Amici Curiae of the District of Columbia and the States of Colorado, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the DKT Liberty Project, Reason Foundation, and the Due Process Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Evangelical Environmental Network, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the First Amendment Foundation and Fane Lozman


Brief Amici Curiae of the Greater New Orleans Barge Fleeting Association, Inc. and Offshore Marine Service Association


Brief Amici Curiae of the Home Depot, Inc. et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Huntsville, Alabama City Board of Education, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Institute for Faith and Family, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the KIPP Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the League of Women Voters of the United States, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Lugar Center and the Levin Center at Wayne Law


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Counties, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and the National Association of Federal Defenders in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Home Builders and American Forest Resource Council in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Manufacturers


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Manufacturers, et al


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Manufacturers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Association of Manufacturers, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Confectioners Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Confectioners Association, the World Cocoa Foundation, and the European Cocoa Association


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Conference of State Legislatures, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Congress of American Indians, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Congress of American Indians, the Navajo Nation, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Support of Respondent


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Education Association and National PTA in Support of Respondents


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Governors Association, National Conference of State Legislatures, Council of State Governments, National League of Cities and International Municipal Lawyers Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Immigration Project, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Legal Foundation, Pacific Justice Institute, and Congressional Prayer Caucus Foundation in Support of the Petitioners and Urging Reversal


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Music Publishers' Association, and Recording Industry Association of America


Brief Amici Curiae of the National School Boards Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the National Women's Law Center, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the New York Bar Foundation and the New York State Bar Association


Brief Amici Curiae of the Ninth Circuit Federal Public and Community Defenders


Brief Amici Curiae of the Niskanen Center, Republican Women for Progress, Bill Weld, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Product Liability Adisory Council, Inc., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Product Liability Advisory Counsel, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Promise of Justice Initiative, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Promise of Justice Initiative, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the R Street Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the R Street Institute, the Wikimedia Foundation, and Public Knowledge


Brief Amici Curiae of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press and 19 Media Organizations in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amici Curiae of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press and 40 Media Organizations, in Support of Respondent


Brief Amici Curiae of the Republican National Committee and the National Republican Congressional Committee


Brief Amici Curiae of the Roanoke River Basin Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Robert Rauschenberg Foundation et al. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of the Rutherford Institute and National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amici Curiae of the Rutherford Institute and the Cato Institute


Brief Amici Curiae of the Rutherford Institute, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Southern Poverty Law Center, et al. Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of the State of Indiana and 43 Other States


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Arizona, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Illinois, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Indiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Louisiana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Texas and Oklahoma


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, West Virginia and Commonwealth of Kentucky


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Texas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Texas, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Texas, et al. Filed. VIDED. (11/5/2019)


Brief Amici Curiae of the States of Utah, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the Trevor Project, PFLAG, and Family Equality Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Catholic Charities USA, and Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief Amici Curiae of the Washington Oil Marketers Association and the Washington Association of Neighborhood Stores


Brief Amici Curiae of the Wisconsin State Senate and Wisconsin State Assembly


Brief Amici Curiae of the Wisconsin State Senate and Wisconsin State Assembly


Brief Amici Curiae of the Women's and Children's Advocacy Project, Equal Means Equal, and Allies Reaching for Equality Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of the World Cocoa Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of the World Jewish Congress, Commission for Art Recovery, and Ambassador Ronald S. Lauder Filed (Also in 18-1447).


Brief Amici Curiae of the World Jewish Congress, Commission for Art Recovery, and Ambassador Ronald S. Lauder Filed (Also in 19-351)


Brief Amici Curiae of Thirty-Five Former Immigration Judges and Members of the Board of Immigration Appeals


Brief Amici Curiae of Thirty-Three Former Immigration Judges and Members of the Board of Immigration Appeals


Brief Amici Curiae of three Individual Activists


Brief Amici Curiae of Timothy P. McCleary, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Tom Cole, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Tort Law Scholars


Brief Amici Curiae of Trademark and Internet Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Trademark Scholars in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amici Curiae of Treasure State Resources Association of Montana, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Tribes and Tribal Organizations


Brief Amici Curiae of Twenty-Seven Members of the U.S. House of Representatives


Brief Amici Curiae of U.S. Reps. Morris Jackson "Mo" Brooks, Jr., et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of U.S. Senators Mike Lee, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of U.S. Senators Patty Murray, Sherrod Brown, and Jack Reed


Brief Amici Curiae of UC Berkeley Center for Consumer Law and Economic Justice, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United Association of Journeymen and Appentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of The United States and Canada, AFL-CIO, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada, AFL-CIO, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United Food and Commercial Workers Western States Council and Teamsters Joint Council 7


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and Other Religious Organizations in Support of Employers


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and Other Religious Organizations in Support of Petitioner and Supporting Reversal


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of United States Senators Ted Cruz, Marsha Blackburn, John Cornyn, Tom Cotton, James M. Inhofe, James Lankford, and Mike Lee


Brief Amici Curiae of Upstate Forever and Savannah Riverkeeper


Brief Amici Curiae of US Senators Lisa Murkowski, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation


Brief Amici Curiae of Various Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of Veterans in Defense of Liberty, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Veterans in Defense of Liberty, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Victims of the Hungarian Holocaust


Brief Amici Curiae of Virginia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Virginia, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation and Allied Educational Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation and Allied Educational Foundation


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington State Tax Practitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of Washington State Tax Practitioners


Brief Amici Curiae of Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Western Growers Association; California Fresh Fruit Association; Grower-Shipper Association of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties; and Ventura County Agricultural Association


Brief Amici Curiae of Western States Sheriffs' Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Whole Woman's Health and Whole Woman's Health Alliance Filed (in 18-1460)


Brief Amici Curiae of William D. Araiza and 14 Other Constitutional, Criminal and Administrative Law Professors


Brief Amici Curiae of William N. Eskridge Jr. and Andrew M. Koppelman Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amici Curiae of Wintergreen Property Owners Association, et al.


Brief Amici Curiae of Wisconsin Majority Leader Scott Fitzgerald and Speaker Robin Vos Filed. VIDED


Brief Amici Curiae of Wisconsin Physicians Service Insurance Corporation and WPS Health Plan, Inc.


Brief Amici Curiae of Women Scholars


Brief amici curiae of Wyoming Stock Growers Association, et al. filed.


Brief Amici Curiae the American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU Foundation of Kansas in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amici Curiae the International Municipal Lawyers Association, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae and Appendix of Professor Robert W. Bennett


Brief Amicus Curiae and Appendix of Professor Robert W. Bennett


Brief Amicus Curiae by the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) in Support of Petitioners Donald J. Trump, President of the United States, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae for Agricultural Business Organizations Supporting Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae for Agricultural, Building, Forestry, Livestock, Manufacturing, Mining, and Petroleum Business Interests in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae for the American Forest & Paper Association and National Mining Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae for the American Legislative Exchange Council in Support of Respondent


Brief Amicus Curiae for the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae for the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae for the Civil Rights Forum in Support of Respondents


Brief Amicus Curiae for the Eastern Shoshone Tribe


Brief Amicus Curiae for the Michigan Beer and Wine Wholesalers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae for Unisone Strategic IP, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of ACA International


Brief Amicus Curiae of ACA International, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy


Brief Amicus Curiae of ACT | The App Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Aditya Bamzai in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Administrative Law Scholars in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Advanced Biofuels Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Adventist Development and Relief Agency International


Brief Amicus Curiae of Advocates for Minor Leaguers


Brief Amicus Curiae of Agudath Israel of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of AIDS Healthcare Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alabama


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alan B. Morrison in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alan B. Morrison Urging Affirmance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alaska Federation of Natives


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alaska Federation of Natives


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alliance for Choice in Education


Brief Amicus Curiae of Alliance for Transparent and Affordable Prescriptions


Brief Amicus Curiae of Altria Group, Inc. Filed (Also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amicus Curiae of America's Health Insurance Plans


Brief Amicus Curiae of America's Health Insurance Plans


Brief Amicus Curiae of America's Health Insurance Plans Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of America's Health Insurance Plans, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Antitrust Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Antitrust Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Antitrust Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Antitrust Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Association of Suicidology


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Bar Association Filed (also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Beverage Licensees


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law & Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law & Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Center for Law and Justice in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Civil Liberties Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Civil Rights Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of American College of Tax Counsel


Brief Amicus Curiae of American College of Tax Counsel


Brief Amicus Curiae of American College of Tax Counsel


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Constitutional Rights Union Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Constitutional Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Farm Bureau Federation


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Federation of Government Employees and American Federation of Teachers in Support of Respondent Vogt


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Humanist Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Humanist Association Filed. (October 7, 2020)


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Law Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Law Association Filed in Support of Neither Party.


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Maritime Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Medical Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Motorcyclist Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Petroleum Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Planning Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Small Business League


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Target Advertising, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of American Trucking Associations, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans for Prosperity Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Americans United for Life


Brief Amicus Curiae of Amnesty International


Brief Amicus Curiae of Andy Altahawi


Brief Amicus Curiae of Anthony Michael Sabino


Brief Amicus Curiae of APA Watch in Support of Respondent


Brief Amicus Curiae of Appalachian Trail Conservancy in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Apple Inc. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Arab American Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Arizona Capital Representation Project


Brief Amicus Curiae of Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization


Brief Amicus Curiae of Arizona Prosecuting Attorneys' Advisory Council


Brief Amicus Curiae of Arizona Voice for Crime Victims


Brief Amicus Curiae of Askeladden L.L.C.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Askeladden L.L.C. Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Asma T. Uddin


Brief Amicus Curiae of Asma T. Uddin


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association for Accessible Medicines


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association for Accessible Medicines in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association for Community Affiliated Plans Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association of Alaska Housing Authorities


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association of American Physicians and Surgeons


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association of American Railroads


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association of Medical Device Reprocessors


Brief Amicus Curiae of Association of Medical Device Service Organizations


Brief Amicus Curiae of Atlanta Gas Light Company


Brief Amicus Curiae of Atlantic Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Atlantic Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Atlantic Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Atlantic Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Atlantic Sounding Co., Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of B.E. Technology, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Benco Dental Supply Company


Brief Amicus Curiae of Better Markets, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of BioScience Advisors, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Biotechnology Innovation Organization


Brief Amicus Curiae of Bipartisan Economic Scholars


Brief Amicus Curiae of Black Guns Matter


Brief Amicus Curiae of Blackwells Capital LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Blue Cross Blue Shield Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Boston Patent Law Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Brennan Center for Justice at N.Y.U. School of Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Brennan Center for Justice at N.Y.U. School of Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of BSA | The Software Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of BSA | The Software Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of California Applicants' Attorneys Association ("CAAA")


Brief Amicus Curiae of California DUI Lawyers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of California Farm Bureau Federation


Brief Amicus Curiae of California Legislature


Brief Amicus Curiae of Campaign Legal Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Capital Punishment Center of the University of Texas School of Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Caselaw Access Project


Brief Amicus Curiae of CatholicVote.org Education Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of CatholicVote.org Education Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cause of Action Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cause of Action Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cause of Action Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cause of Action Institute Filed


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cemetery Law Scholars


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Alcohol Policy


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence Filed


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Global Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Individual Rights


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Individual Rights


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Taxpayer Rights


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for the Rule of Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Workplace Compliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Center for Workplace Compliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America Filed (in 18-1028).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chantell and Michael Sackett and Duarte Nursery, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chevron Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Chevron Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Child Evangelism Fellowship, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Christian Business Owners Supporting Religious Freedom Filed (in 19-431).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Christian Family Coalition (CFC) Florida, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Christian Family Coalition (CFC) Florida, Inc. Filed. VIDED. (Also in 19-635)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Christian Family Coalition (CFC) Florida, Inc. Filed. (Also in 19-715 & 19-760)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Christian Legal Society


Brief Amicus Curiae of Christian Legal Society


Brief Amicus Curiae of Citizens Equal Rights Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Citizens for Self-Governance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, and the Presidential Coalition, LLC in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, Public Advocate of the United States, Gun Owners Foundation, Gun Owners of America, Inc., English First, English First Foundation, Policy Analysis Center, and Restoring Liberty Action Committee in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, English First Foundation, Public Advocate of the U.S., the Senior Citizens League, 60 Plus Foundation, Gun Owners Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of City of Tulsa


Brief Amicus Curiae of Civil Justice Research Initiative


Brief Amicus Curiae of Civil Procedure Professors


Brief Amicus Curiae of Claimant Seeking Recovery for Wrongful Death of Crewmember


Brief Amicus Curiae of Coalition Against Patent Abuse in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Coalition for Government Procurement


Brief Amicus Curiae of Coalition for Litigation Justice, Inc., et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Coalition of .Com Brand Owners


Brief Amicus Curiae of College Athlete Advocates


Brief Amicus Curiae of Colorado Republican Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of Comcast Cable Communications, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Committee for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Commonwealth of Puerto Rico


Brief Amicus Curiae of Commonwealth of Virginia


Brief Amicus Curiae of Commonwealth Second Amendment, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Computer & Communications Industry Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Concerned Women for America, in Support of the Petitioners and Urging Reversal


Brief Amicus Curiae of Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, Free Speech Coalition, Free Speech Defense and Education Fund, One Nation under God Foundation, Pass the Salt Ministries, Eberle Associates, Downsize DC Foundation, DownsizeDC.org, Restoring Liberty Action Committee, and the Transforming Word Ministries in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center Filed (in 18-1323)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Constitutional Accountability Center Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Consumer Bankers Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Consumer Data Industry Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Cook Inlet Region, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Council on American-Islamic Relations


Brief Amicus Curiae of Council on State Taxation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment Below


Brief Amicus Curiae of Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment Below


Brief Amicus Curiae of Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment below on the Question Presented by the Petition


Brief Amicus Curiae of Credit Union National Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Credit Union National Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Institute of Harvard Law School


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Institute of Harvard Law School


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Criminal Justice Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Crow Tribe of Indians


Brief Amicus Curiae of Customized Logistics and Delivery Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of David Boyle


Brief Amicus Curiae of David Boyle Filed. (in 19-840)


Brief Amicus Curiae of David Orentlicher


Brief Amicus Curiae of David Orentlicher in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Developers Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Digital Justice Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of DKT Liberty Project


Brief Amicus Curiae of Dr. Henning Schulzrinne


Brief Amicus Curiae of Dr. John S. Baker, Jr.


Brief Amicus Curiae of DRI - The Voice of the Defense Bar


Brief Amicus Curiae of DRI - The Voice of the Defense Bar


Brief Amicus Curiae of DRI - The Voice of the Defense Bar


Brief Amicus Curiae of DRI - The Voice of the Defense Bar


Brief Amicus Curiae of DRI - The Voice of the Defense Bar


Brief Amicus Curiae of DRI - Voice of the Defense Bar


Brief Amicus Curiae of DUI Defense Lawyers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Eduation & Legal Defense Fund in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund Filed. (Also in 19-715 & 19-760)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund Filed. VIDED. (Also in 19-635)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of EarthRights International


Brief Amicus Curiae of eComp Consultants


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Frontier Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Frontier Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Frontier Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Employers Health Purchasing Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Employment Law Scholars


Brief Amicus Curiae of Energy and Wildlife Action Coalition


Brief Amicus Curiae of Energy Policy Advocates


Brief Amicus Curiae of Engine Advocacy


Brief Amicus Curiae of Engine Advocacy


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eric S. Lander


Brief Amicus Curiae of Ethics and Public Policy Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eugene H. Goldberg


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eugene Volokh in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Eugene Volokh in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Everytown for Gun Safety


Brief Amicus Curiae of Facebook, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Fair Lines America Foundation, Inc. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Family Research Council


Brief Amicus Curiae of FAMM


Brief Amicus Curiae of FAMM


Brief Amicus Curiae of Federal Administrative Law Judges Conference in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Federal Circuit Bar Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of First Amendment Clinic Duke Law School


Brief Amicus Curiae of First Liberty Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of First Liberty Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of First Liberty Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Floyd Abrams Institute for Freedom of Expression


Brief Amicus Curiae of Floyd Abrams Institute for Freedom of Expression


Brief Amicus Curiae of Forge Youth Mentoring


Brief Amicus Curiae of Former Attorney General Edwin Meese III


Brief Amicus Curiae of Former Judges and Prosecutors


Brief Amicus Curiae of Former State Department Attorney Mark B. Feldman


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Individual Rights in Education


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Foundation for Moral Law in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Fourth Amendment Scholars


Brief Amicus Curiae of Franciscan University of Steubenville


Brief Amicus Curiae of Frederick Douglass Foundation, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Frederick K. Cox International Law Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Frontier Communications Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Galen Black


Brief Amicus Curiae of General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists


Brief Amicus Curiae of Generation Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of George K. Young


Brief Amicus Curiae of Georgia Goal Scholarship Program, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Geraci Law LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Giffords Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Glynn Lunney


Brief Amicus Curiae of Goldwater Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Grant & Eisenhofer ESG Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Gray Television, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Gray Television, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Gray Television, Inc. Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Great Lakes Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Harpeth Financial Services, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Harvard TPS Coalition


Brief Amicus Curiae of HCA Healthcare, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Helen Purcell


Brief Amicus Curiae of Helen Purcell in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of High Tech Inventors Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Hispanic Leadership Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Home Depot, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Hon. Daniel J. Evans in Support of Respondents


Brief Amicus Curiae of Honest Elections Project


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Law Reform Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Immigration Reform Law Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Independence Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Independence Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Independent Women's Law Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Independent Women's Law Center Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Indian Law Scholars and Professors


Brief Amicus Curiae of Information Society Project at Yale Law School Filed (in 18-1323).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Inner Life Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Innocence Project New Orleans


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Free Speech


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Free Speech


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Free Speech


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice in Support of Reversal


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Justice, Owners Counsel of America, and Professor Daniel R. Mandelker, Supporting Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute for Policy Integrity at New York University School of Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Institute of International Bankers


Brief Amicus Curiae of Intel Corp.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Intel Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Intellectual Property Owners Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Intellectual Property Owners Association Filed in Support of Neither Party.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Intellectual Property Owners Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Interested Legal Scholar


Brief Amicus Curiae of Interested Legal Scholar Robert M. Hardway


Brief Amicus Curiae of International Academy of Family Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC)


Brief Amicus Curiae of International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, AFL-CIO


Brief Amicus Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of International Municipal Lawyers' Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of International Trademark Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Internet Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Internet Commerce Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jason V. Morgan Filed (in 19-1434).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jed H. Shugerman


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jeffrey D. Kahn


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jeremy C. Doerre


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jeremy C. Doerre


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jeremy C. Doerre


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jeremy C. Doerre Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jerry H. Goldfeder


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jerry H. Goldfeder


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Joel Edan Friedlander


Brief Amicus Curiae of Jonathan F. Mitchell & Adam K. Mortara in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of JonRe Taylor


Brief Amicus Curiae of Judicial Watch, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Judicial Watch, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Judicial Watch, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Justice and Freedom Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Justice and Freedom Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Kamal S. Kalsi, D.O.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Kristin E. Hickman


Brief Amicus Curiae of Landmark Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Law Enforcement Action Partnership


Brief Amicus Curiae of Law Professors and Social Scientists


Brief Amicus Curiae of Lawyers for Civil Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights under Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights under Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights under Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Legal Aid Society Filed (Also in 17-1618 & 17-1623).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Legal Service Providers


Brief Amicus Curiae of Libertarian National Committee Filed (Distributed). (Corrected Brief to Be Submitted - March 16, 2020)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Liberty Counsel


Brief Amicus Curiae of Liberty Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Liberty Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Liberty Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Life Legal Defense Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Los Angeles County Police Chiefs' Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mackinac Center for Public Policy


Brief Amicus Curiae of Madison Society Foundation, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Main Street Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Main Street Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Main Street Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Major Brands, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Making Every Vote Count Foundation in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Managed Funds Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Manfred W. Arnold


Brief Amicus Curiae of Manhattan Institute for Policy Research


Brief Amicus Curiae of March for Life Education and Defense Fund Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of March for Our Lives Action Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Maricopa County


Brief Amicus Curiae of Maritime Law Association of the United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of Maryland


Brief Amicus Curiae of Matthew Bender & Co., Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Michael Binday


Brief Amicus Curiae of Michael L. Rosin


Brief Amicus Curiae of Michael Risch


Brief Amicus Curiae of Michael T. Morley in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Microsoft Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Midland Credit Management, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Midland Credit Management, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Military Order of the Purple Heart


Brief Amicus Curiae of Military Order of the Purple Heart


Brief Amicus Curiae of Montana Family Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Montana-Northern Wyoming Conference, United Church of Christ


Brief Amicus Curiae of Morgan A. Cloud


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mothers Against Drunk Driving


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mothers Against Drunk Driving


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mountain States Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mountain States Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mountain Valley Pipeline, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Mountain Valley Pipeline, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Muscogee (Creek) Nation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Muslim Advocates


Brief Amicus Curiae of Muslim Advocates


Brief Amicus Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Nation Education Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of National African American Gun Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Bankruptcy Trustees


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Chain Drug Stores, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Chapter Thirteen Trustees


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Consumer Advocates


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Counties, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Disability Representatives Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Evangelicals


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Home Builders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Home Builders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Home Builders


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Home Builders in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Home Builders in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Insurance Commissioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Insurance Commissioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Police Organizations


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Shareholder and Consumer Attorneys


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Association of Specialty Pharmacy


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Beer Wholesalers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Catholic Educational Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of National College for DUI Defense


Brief Amicus Curiae of National College for DUI Defense, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Congress of American Indians


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Congress of American Indians Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Consumer Reporting Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Council of Insurance Legislators


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Creditors Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Creditors Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Employment Lawyers Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Federation of State High School Associations Filed (in 20-512).


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Fraternal Order of Police


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Immigrant Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Immigrant Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Immigrant Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Motorists Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Organization of Social Security Claimants' Representatives


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Rifle Association of America, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Taxpayers Union Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of National Treasury Employees Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of Natural Resources Defense Council


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance Filed (Jan. 5, 2021).


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Civil Liberties Alliance Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New England Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Hampshire Right to Life


Brief Amicus Curiae of New Jersey Civil Justice Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York City Bar Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York Intellectual Property Law Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York Intellectual Property Law Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York Intellectual Property Law Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of New York Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Niskanen Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Niskanen Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Nuclear Energy Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Oak Management Corporation in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Occupy the SEC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Ohio Farm Bureau Federation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Open Markets Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Opportunity Partners, L.P. in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Opportunity Scholarship Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of Orin S. Kerr


Brief Amicus Curiae of Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Oxfam America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation and TechFreedom


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation Challenging the Ruling on the De Facto Officer Doctrine


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Reversal


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, Competitive Enterprise Institute, Cato Institute, and Wisconsin Institute for Law & Liberty in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pacific Legal Foundation, Goldwater Institute, the Fairness Center, Empire for Public Policy, Inc., Pioneer Institute, Inc., Reason Foundation, Individual Rights Foundation, and Yankee Institute for Public Policy in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Parents Defending Education


Brief Amicus Curiae of Partnership Schools


Brief Amicus Curiae of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of Patrick J. Charles in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Patrick J. Smith


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pelican Institute for Public Policy


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pension Rights Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Peter Toren


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Filed. (November 4, 2019)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Philip P. Kalodner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Phillip Goldstein


Brief Amicus Curiae of Phillips Black, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Phoenix Center for Advanced Legal & Economic Public Policy Studies filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pink Pistols


Brief Amicus Curiae of Pioneer Institute, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Populi


Brief Amicus Curiae of Port Ministries International


Brief Amicus Curiae of Portfolio Recovery Associates, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Portfolio Recovery Associates, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Power Integrations, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Prince George's County, Maryland


Brief Amicus Curiae of Product Liability Advisory Council, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Product Liability Advisory Council, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professional Background Screening Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Andrew Michaels in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Andrew Reamer, Ph.D.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Bryan T. Camp


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor D. Theodore Rave


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Derek T. Muller in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Derek T. Muller in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Douglas Laycock


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Edward B. Foley in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Edward B. Foley in Support of Neither Party Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor George A. Bermann


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor John D. Inazu


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor John F. Stinneford in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor John Harrison


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor John Harrison in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Jonathan R. Nash


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Michael Kang


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Michael Kang


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Michael T. Morley in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Nicholas Stephanopoulos in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Roberta Lea Brilmayer


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Scott Dodson in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Stephen I. Vladeck


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Steven Penney


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Thomas Merrill


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor Victor Williams


Brief Amicus Curiae of Professor William B. Rubenstein


Brief Amicus Curiae of Project on Fair Representation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Project on Fair Representation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Proposition 8 Legal Defense Fund Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of PTAB Bar Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Advocate of the United States, et al., in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Advocate of the United States, et al., in Support of the Employers


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Advocate of the United States, U.S. Justice Foundation, Citizens United Foundation, Citizens United, One Nation under God Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, and Constitution Party National Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Citizen, Inc. in Support of Neither Party filed.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Integrity Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Interest Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Interest Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Interest Legal Foundation filed. (Distributed)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Justice


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Justice in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Public Knowledge


Brief Amicus Curiae of Quicken Loans, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Ralph Oman


Brief Amicus Curiae of Red Hat, Inc. filed.(3/11/2019)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Representative David Trone


Brief Amicus Curiae of Representative Raul M. Grijalva


Brief Amicus Curiae of Republican Governors Public Policy Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of Republican National Committee Filed (February 12, 2020 - Corrected Brief).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Republican State Leadership Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of Restore the Fourth, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Restore the Fourth, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Restore the Fourth, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Restore the Fourth, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Energy Supply Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Reunite International Child Abduction Centre in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Richard James Pierce Jr., in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Richard Lawrence in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of Rimini Street, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Robert Leider


Brief Amicus Curiae of Robertson Center for Constitutional Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Roderick and Solange MacArthur Justice Center in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Sailors' Union of the Pacific


Brief Amicus Curiae of Salesforce.com, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Sam C. Ehrlich


Brief Amicus Curiae of Sam C. Ehrlich


Brief Amicus Curiae of Sam C. Ehrlich in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of San Jaun County, Utah


Brief Amicus Curiae of SBH A&I Filed. (Also in 19-825)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Second Amendment Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Josh Hawley


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Josh Hawley in Support of Respondent


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Orrin Hatch


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse


Brief Amicus Curiae of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse


Brief Amicus Curiae of Sergeant Major Jeff S. Howard (Retired)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Service Employees International Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of Simon Tam


Brief Amicus Curiae of Small Business Majority Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Societe Nationale SNCF SA in Support of Neither Party Filed (also in 18-1447). VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Societe Nationale SNCF SA in Support of Neither Party Filed (also in 19-351).


Brief Amicus Curiae of Society for Human Resource Management


Brief Amicus Curiae of Software Freedom Law Center Filed. (1/17/2020)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation


Brief amicus curiae of Southeastern Legal Foundation filed.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Southwestern Law Student Lindsey N. Ursua, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Speaker Michael C. Turzai


Brief Amicus Curiae of Spectrum Settlement Recovery, LLC


Brief amicus curiae of St. Tammany Parish Government filed.


Brief Amicus Curiae of St. Thomas More Lawyers Guild of Rochester, New York


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Alaska


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Alaska


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Alaska


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Alaska in Support of Petition for Writ of Certiorari


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of California


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Idaho


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Maryland


Brief Amicus Curiae of State of Oregon


Brief Amicus Curiae of States of Oklahoma, et al. as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Stephen M. Shapiro


Brief Amicus Curiae of Stephen M. Shapiro


Brief Amicus Curiae of Stephen Wise Temple


Brief Amicus Curiae of Stephen Wise Temple


Brief Amicus Curiae of Stuart Banner


Brief Amicus Curiae of Student Loan Servicing Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of Sue Wilson, Media Action Center Filed (Corrected PDF Submitted - 1/14/21). (Distributed)


Brief Amicus Curiae of Superior Communications, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Surescripts, LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of Tax Clinic at the Legal Services Center of Harvard Law School


Brief Amicus Curiae of Taxpayers Against Fraud Education Fund


Brief Amicus Curiae of TechFreedom


Brief Amicus Curiae of TechFreedom filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Texas House Representative Carl Isett


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Bar Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union in Support of Respondents


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Civil Rights Union


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American College of Trust & Estate Counsel in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Conservative Union Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Jewish Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Jewish Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Statistical Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Waterways Operators


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Association for Accessible Medicines in Support of the Petition for Certiorari


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Association for Community Affiliated Plans


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Association of Amicus Counsel


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Buckeye Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Buckeye Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Buckeye Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Catholic Benefits Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Cato Institute Supporting Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Center for Auto Safety


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Center for Workplace Compliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Center for Workplace Compliance in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Center for Workplace Compliance in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Coca-Cola Company


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Coca-Cola Company


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Colorado Democratic Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Commercial Law League of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Committee to Support the Antitrust Laws


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Committee to Support the Antitrust Laws


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Computer & Communications Industry Association in Support of Respondents


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Conference of Chief Justices in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Copyright Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Council of the Great City Schools


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Criminal Bar Association of England & Wales


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in Support of Respondent


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Equal Employment Advisory Council in Support of Petitioner


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Foundation for Moral Law in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Foundation for Moral Law in Support of Petitioners, Donald J. Trump, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Guttmacher Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Holocaust Art Restitution Project, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Honorable Scott Walker


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Independent Women's Law Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Inland River Harbor and Fleeting Coalition


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Intellectual Property Law Association of Chicago


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Intellectual Property Law Association of Chicago


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Intellectual Property Law Association of Chicago in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the International Center for Law and Economics


Brief Amicus Curiae of the International Trademark Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the International Trademark Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the International Trademark Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Islam and Religious Freedom Action Team of the Religious Freedom Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Islam and Religious Freedom Action Team of the Religious Freedom Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Islam and Religious Freedom Action Team of the Religious Freedom Institute filed. VIDED.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Judgment Below in Support


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Knights of Columbus Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Liberal Gun Club


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Markup


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Miami International Arbitration Society


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Community Health Centers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Federal Defenders


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Federal Defenders in Support of Respondents


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Manufacturers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Association of Manufacturers


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Catholic Educational Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Consumer Law Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs ("COLPA"), et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs (COLPA) Filed on Behalf of Orthodox Jewish Organizations in Support of Petitioners


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Republican Redistricting Trust


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Rifle Association Freedom Action Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of the National Whistleblower Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of the New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of the New Civil Liberties Alliance


Brief Amicus Curiae of the New York Intellectual Property Law Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Nielsen Company (US), LLC


Brief Amicus Curiae of the North America Branch of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators


Brief Amicus Curiae of the North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Pension Rights Center Filed (October 29, 2019)


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Product Liability Advisory Council, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the R Street Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the R Street Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Republican National Committee


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Retail Litigation Center, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Roderick & Solange MacArthur Justice Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Rutherford Institute


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Sikh Coalition


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Society for Corporate Governance


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Software & Information Industry Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the States of Texas, et al. Filed. VIDED. (11/5/2019)


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Town of Taos, New Mexico


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Town of Taos, New Mexico


Brief Amicus Curiae of the United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of the United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of the United States in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the United States Technology Policy Committee of the ACM in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Utah Highway Patrol Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of the Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Thomas B. Nachbar Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Thomas More Law Center


Brief Amicus Curiae of Thomas More Society


Brief Amicus Curiae of Thomas P. Vartanian


Brief Amicus Curiae of Timothy Howard


Brief Amicus Curiae of TiVo Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of TiVo Corporation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Tony's Chocolonely


Brief Amicus Curiae of Torah Umesorah


Brief Amicus Curiae of Town of Taos, New Mexico


Brief Amicus Curiae of Truth in Advertising, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of U.N. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy Joseph Cannataci in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of U.S. Army Defense Appellate Division


Brief Amicus Curiae of U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of U.S. Lumber Coalition


Brief Amicus Curiae of U.S. Rep. Andy Biggs, et al.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Unified Patents, LLC in Support of Neither Party and of Reversal


Brief Amicus Curiae of United Farm Workers of America


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States House of Representatives


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States House of Representatives


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States House of Representatives


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States House of Representatives


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of United States Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of United Therapeutics Corp.


Brief Amicus Curiae of US Inventor, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of US Inventor, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Utility Air Regulatory Group


Brief Amicus Curiae of VanHo Law


Brief Amicus Curiae of Verizon Communications Inc. in Support of Neither Party


Brief Amicus Curiae of Vinz Koller


Brief Amicus Curiae of Vinz Koller


Brief Amicus Curiae of Voatz, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of W. Burlette Carter


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation


Brief Amicus Curiae of Washington Legal Foundation Filed. VIDED


Brief Amicus Curiae of Waterways Council, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Western Manufactured Housing Communities Association


Brief Amicus Curiae of William Fielding, Trustee


Brief Amicus Curiae of William R. Weinstein


Brief Amicus Curiae of Wine and Spirits Wholesalers of America, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Wine and Spirits Wholesalers of Tennessee, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae of Wisconsin Institute for Law & Liberty


Brief Amicus Curiae of Yale Law School Center for Global Legal Challenges


Brief Amicus Curiae of Young Americans for Liberty, Inc.


Brief Amicus Curiae on Behalf of Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations, Alaska Trollers Association, Institute for Fisheries Resources, Fly Fishers International, Northwest Sportfishing Industry Association, Northwest Guides and Anglers Association, Association of Northwest Steelheaders, and the Conservation Angler in Support of Respondents


Brief Brief for Legal Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief Equality Now, Human Rights Watch, and Other Human Rights Organizations in Support of Respondent


Brief for "Vicky" and "Andy" in Support of Respondent


Brief for 104 Health Law Professors in Support of Petitioners Regarding the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for 11 Professors in Support of Amgen, Inc., Et Al.As Cross-Petitioners


Brief for 118 Law, Economics, and Business Professors and the American Antitrust Institute in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 118 Members of Congress As in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 12 Women Who Attest to the Importance of Free Speech in Their Abortion Decisions in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 123 Members of the United States Congress in Support of Respondents


Brief for 14 Scholars of Forensic Evidence in Support of Respondent


Brief for 16 Public Pension Funds in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 163 Members of Congress in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 167 Members of the U.S. House of Representatives and 44 U.S. Senators in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 167 Members of the U.S. House of Representatives and 44 U.S. Senators in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 172 Members of the U.S. House of Representatives and 40 U.S. Senators in Support of Respondent Edith Schlain Windsor


Brief for 1851 Center for Constitutional Law in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 186 Members of the U.S. House of Representatives and 39 Members of the U.S. Senate in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 207 Members of Congress in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 21 Past Presidents of the D.C. Bar in Support of Respondents


Brief for 21 Past Presidents of the D.C. Bar in Support of Respondents


Brief for 21st Century Casualty Company, 21st Century Insurance Company, 21st Century Insurance Company of the Southwest, and 21st Century Insurance Group in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 22 Law, Economics and Business Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for 226 U.S. Mayors; Mayors for the Freedom to Marry; U.S. Conference of Mayors; Int'l Municipal Lawyers Association; Nat'l League of Cities; Cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York, and 36 Other Cities in Support of the Petitioners


Brief for 23 Pro-Life Organizations and the Judicial Education Project in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 24 Scholars of Federalism in Support of Respondents


Brief for 240 Students, Faculty, and Staff at Religiously Affiliated Universities in Support of Respondents


Brief for 25 Intellectual Property Law Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 278 Employers and Organizations Representing Employers in Support of Respondent Edith Schlain Windsor


Brief for 28 California Community Groups in Support of Respondent


Brief for 3,348 Women Injured by Abortion and the Justice Foundation in Support of Respondents


Brief for 33 Practicing-Entity Patent Owners in Support of Respondent


Brief for 33 Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 36 Intellectual Property and Copyright Law Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for 37 Law, Business, and Economics Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 379 Employers and Organizations Representing Employers in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 39 Undergraduate and Graduate Student Organizations Within the University of California in Support of Respondents


Brief for 3M Co., General Electric Co., the Procter & Gamble Company, and Johnson & Johnson in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 3M Company, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Cargill Incorporated, Caterpillar Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Exxon Mobil Corporation, Glaxosmithkline LLC, Illinois Tool Works Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Monsanto Company, Pfizer Inc., Philips Electronics North America Corp., the Procter & Gamble Company, Qualcomm Incorporated and Sanofi US in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 3M Company, Caterpillar Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Procter & Gamble, General Electric Company, Eli Lilly and , BP, E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company, Ecolab Inc., Dolby Laboratories Boston Scientific Corporation, and the Valspar Corporation in Support of Respondent


Brief for 40 Days for Life in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 41 Law, Economics, and Business Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 43 Social Science Researchers and Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for 44 Law, Economics and Business Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for 48 Internet Companies, Retailers, and Associations in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 5 Consumer Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for 50 Catholic Theologians and Ethicists in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 50 Catholic Theologians and Ethicists in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 50 Intellectual Property Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for 51 Computer Scientists as Amici Curiae in Support of the Respondent


Brief for 53 Current Members of the Texas State Senate and House of Representatives in Support of Respondents


Brief for 57 Criminal Law and Procedure Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for 61 Professors of Law and Economics in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 63 California Indian Tribes in Support of Respondents


Brief for 72 Professors of Intellectual Property Law as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for 77 Former State Attorneys General (Non-Virginia) in Support of Petitioner


Brief for 823 Social Scientists in Support of Respondents


Brief for 91 Members of the United States House of Representatives in Support of the Government


Brief for 92 Plaintiffs in Marriage Cases in Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, and Texas in Support of Petitioners


Brief for A Child is Missing, Inc., and Practitioners and Specialists in Hague Convention Child Abduction Litigation and the Field of Children and the Law in Support of Petitioner


Brief for a Coalition of 340B Entity Groups in Support of Respondent


Brief for Aaron and Melissa Klein as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioners


Brief for AARP and AARP Foundation as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP and AARP Foundation as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents Michael H. Resh, et al.


Brief for AARP and AARP Foundation in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP and Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondents Urging Affirmance


Brief for AARP and National Employment Lawyers Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP and National Employment Lawyers Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP and National Senior Citizens Law Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP and National Senior Citizens Law Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP and North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP and the National Legislative Association on Prescription Drug Prices in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP and the National Senior Citizen Law Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP and the North American Securities Administrators Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP and the North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP and the North American Securities Administrators Association, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP and the Public Patent Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP and U.S. PIRG in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP in Support of Petitioners


Brief for AARP in Support of Petitioners


Brief for AARP in Support of Petitioners Regarding the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP, AARP Foundation, Citizens Against Government Waste, the UAW Retiree Medical Benefits Trust, the National Health Law Program, and the Coalition to Protect Patient Choice in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP, AARP Foundation, Justice In Aging, The National Consumer Voice For Quality Long-Term Care, and Nursing Home Ombudsman Agency Of The Bluegrass in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP, American Medical Association, National Legislative Association for Prescription Drug Prices and U.S. Public Interest Research Groups in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP, California Rural Assistance, Inc., Disability Law Center, Family Equality Council, Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., National Disability Rights Network, National Housing Law Project, and Services and Advocacy for GLBT Elders is Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP, Center for Responsible Lending, National Consumers League, and Public Citizen, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP, Families USA, the National Legal Aid and Defenders Association, the National Health Law Program, the National Disability Rights Network, Center for Medicare Advocacy, First Focus, Voices for America's Children, Children's Dental Health Project, the National Center for Youth Law, National Housing Law Project,National REACH Coalition, Disability Rights Legal Center, the American Network of Community Options andResources, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, the National Family Planning & ReproductiveHealth Association, the National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health, Black Women's Health Imperative, National Asian Pacific American Women's Forum, Asian & Pacific Islander American HealthForum in Support of Respondent


Brief for AARP, Interfaith Worker Justice, National Employment Law Project and National Employment Lawyers Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP, National Consumer Law Center, American Civil Liberties Union, National Association of Consumer Advocates, and Center for Responsible Lending in Support of Petitioners


Brief for AARP, National Health Law Program, Services and Advocacy for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Elders, and National Council on Aging in Support of Respondents


Brief for AARP, the Consumer Federation of America, East Bay Community Law Center, the National Association of Consumer Advocates, and the National Consumer Law Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AARP, the National Seniors Citizens Law Center, the ARC of the United States, the National Health Law Program, and United Cerebral Palsy in Support of Petitioner


Brief for AASA, The School Superintendents Association; Case, the Council of Administrators of Special Education; the Association of School Business Officials International; and Five Other Educational Organizations in Support of Respondent


Brief for ABayhdole25, Inc. in Support of Affirmance


Brief for Abbvie Inc. in Support of Amgen Inc., Et Al.


Brief for AbbVie, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Abraham Lincoln Foundation for Public Policy Research, Inc., America's Prayer Network, Christians Reviving America's Values, U.S. Justice Foundation, and Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Abukar Hassan Ahmed, Daniel Alvarado, Dr. Juan Romagoza Arce, Aldo Cabello, Zita Cabello, Aziz Mohamed Deria, Dolly Filartiga, Neris Gonzales, Gloria Reyes, Oscar Reyes, Cecilia Santos Moran, Zenaida Velasquez, Bashe Abdi Yousuf, and the Center for Justice and Accountability in Support of Petitioner


Brief for ACA International in Support of Petitioner


Brief for ACA International in Support of Petitioner


Brief for ACA International in Support of Respondent


Brief for ACA International in Support of Respondent


Brief for ACA International Law in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Academic Research Scientists in Support of Respondent


Brief for Academics in Law, Medicine, Health Policy and Clinical Genetics in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Academics on Gang Behavior in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Academy of Rail Labor Attorneys in Support of Respondents


Brief for Access to Courts Initiative, Inc., and National Association of Manufacturers in Support of Respondents


Brief for ACNA Jurisdiction of the Armed Forces and Chaplaincy and Ave Maria University in Support of Petitioners


Brief for ACT APP Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Action on Smoking and Health, American Thoracic Society, National Association of County and City Health Officials, Public Good Law Center, and Tobacco Control Legal Consortium in Support of Respondents


Brief for Active and Former State and Federal Prosecutors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Activision Blizzard, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for Adam J. Levitin, Professor of Law in Support of Respondent


Brief for Additional Family Members of Victims of State-Sponsored Terrorism in Support of Respondent


Brief for Adello Biologics, LLC, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Administrative & Constitutional Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Administrative Law and Civil Procedure Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Administrative Law Professors and the Judicial Education Project in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Administrative Law Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for Administrative Law Scholars as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Administrative Law Scholars in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Adoption and Child Welfare Advocates in Support of Respondents


Brief for Adoptive Parents Committee, Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Adult Pre-ICWA Indian Adoptees in Support of Respondents


Brief for Advanced Biological Laboratories, SA in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Advocacy for Patients with Chronic Illness, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Advocates for Children of New York, Children's Law Center, Inc., Connecticut Parent Advocacy Center, Equip For Equality, the Legal Aid Society, Legal Services Nyc, National Center For Youth Law, New York Lawyers For ThePublic Interest, New York Legal Assistance Group, Partnership for Children's Rights, And Statewide Parent Advocacy Network in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Advocates for Youth in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Advocates of Human Rights in Support of Petitioner


Brief for African-American and Hispanic-American Organizations in Support of Respondents


Brief for AFSCME District Council 37, Health Care For All, and Community Catalyst in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Agilent Technologies, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Agilent Technologies, Inc., Illumina, Inc., Life Technologies Corp., Promega Corp., Qiagen N.V., and Roche Molecular Systems, Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Agudas Chasidei Chabad of United States in Support of Respondent


Brief for Agudath Israel of America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Ahold U.S.A., Inc., Albertsons LLC, H.E. Butt Grocery Co.,Hy-Vee, Inc., The Kroger Co., Safeway Inc., Spirit Airlines, Inc., and Walgreen Co. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Aids Foundation of Chicago, Aids Legal Referral Panel, Apicha, Inc., Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders, Gay City Health Project, Global Network of People Living With HIV, HIV Law Project, the Interior Aids Association, Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., Legal Action Center, Metro TeenAIDS, the National Black Gay Men's Advocacy Coalition, National Center For Lesbian Rights, National Immigrant Justice Center, National Women's Health Network, Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund, and Whitman-Walker Health in Support of Respondent


Brief for Airlines for America and American Trucking Associations, Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Airlines for America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Airlines for America, Regional Airline Association, and Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Airports Council International - North America in Support of Respondent


Brief for Al-Haramain Islamic Foundation, Inc., Wendell Belew, Asim Ghafoor, and Electronic Frontier Foundation in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Alabama and Montana in Support of Respondent


Brief for Alabama and Texas in Support of Appellants


Brief for Alabama Appellate Court Justices and Bar Presidents in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama Cities and Counties, City of Mobile et al. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Alabama Criminal Defense Lawyers Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama Legislative Black Caucus and Alabama Association of Black County Officials, in Support of Respondents


Brief for Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Utah in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Georgia, Hawaii, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, West Virginia and Wyoming in Support of Respondents


Brief for Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, And West Virginia and the District of Columbia in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Tennessee, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming in Support of Respondent


Brief for Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and West Virginia in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama, Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia in Support of Respondent


Brief for Alabama, Arizona, District Of Columbia, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Utah in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama, Colorado, Michigan, Nebraska, Tennessee, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alabama, Georgia, Kansas, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Texas in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Alan B. Morrison in Support of Respondents


Brief for Alan S. Frankel in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Alaska, Colorado, Hawai'i, Kansas, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, Wisconsin and Wyoming in Support of Respondent


Brief for Albert Contreras, Patricia Griggs, and Jonathan Kiss in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Albert W. Alschuler in Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Albert W. Alschuler in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alexander M. Shukh, PH.D. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alexandria Boehm, Ph.D., and Mark Gold, D.Env. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Allan G. Halseth in Support of Petitioner


Brief for ALLCO Renewable Energy Limited in Support of Respondents


Brief for Allearth Renewables, Inc., Namaste Solar, Petersendean, Inc., Revision Energy, and Westinghouse Solar in Support of Respondent


Brief for Allergan, Inc., Shire Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp., and Somaxon Corp., in Support of Respondent


Brief for Alliance Defending Freedom and Thomas More Society in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Alliance Defending Freedom as Amicus Curiae Supporting Neither Party


Brief for Alliance Defending Freedom in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alliance Defending Freedom in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Alliance Defending Freedom in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Allied Daily Newspapers of Washington and Society of Environmental Journalists in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Allstate Insurance Company in Support of Respondents


Brief for Altria Group, Inc., Bank Of America Corporation, Cigna Corporation, Del Monte Foods Company, Dole Food Company, Inc., Dollar General Corporation, Dupont Company, Fedex Corporation, General Electric Company, Hewlett-PackardCompany, Kimberly-Clark Corporation, McKesson Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, NYSE Euronext, Pepsico, Inc., Tyson Foods, Inc., UnitedHealth Group Incorporated, United Parcel Service, Inc., Walgreen Co., And The Williams Companies, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amazon.com, Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc., Dell Inc., ESRI, Garmin International, Inc., Google Inc., J.C. Penney Corporation, Inc., Limelight Networks, Inc., Netflix, Inc., Newegg Inc., Red Hat, Inc., SAP America, Inc., SAS Institute Inc., and Verizon Communications Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Ambassador David J. Scheffer, Northwestern University School of Law, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for America's Health Insurance Plans and Association of Federal Health Organizations in Support of Petitioner


Brief for America's Health Insurance Plans as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioner


Brief for America's Health Insurance Plans in Support of Petitioner


Brief for America's Health Insurance Plans in Support of Petitioner


Brief for America...s Health Insurance Plans in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Academy of Pediatrics in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academyof Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Benton Foundation, Children Now, and, United Church of Christ Office of Communication, Inc in Support of Affirmance


Brief for American Anthropological Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, California, and Robert M. Galatzer-Levy, M.D., in Support of Respondents and Affirmance, Addressing California Proposition 8's Stigmatizing Effects


Brief for American Antitrust Institute in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Association for Justice in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Association of Attorney-Certified Public Accountants, Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Association of University Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Bankers Association, American Escrow Association, Community Mortgage Banking Project, Consumer Bankers Association, the Consumer Mortgage Coalition, the Financial Services Roundtable, Housing Policy Council, Mortgage Bankers Association, and theNational Association of Realtors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Bankers Association, American Financial Services Association and Consumer Bankers Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Bankers Association, American Financial Services Association, Consumer Bankers Association, Consumer Mortgage Coalition, Credit Union National Association, Housing Policy Council of the Financial Services Roundtable, Independent Community Bankers of America, Mortgage Bankers Association, and National Association of Federal Credit Unions in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Bankers Association, American Financial Services Association, Consumer Bankers Association, Consumer Mortgage Coalition, Credit Union National Association, Housing Policy Council of the Financial Services Roundtable, Independent Community Bankers of America, Mortgage Bankers Association, and National Association of Federal Credit Unions in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Bankers Association, American Financial Services Association, Consumer Bankers Association, Financial Services Roundtable and California Bankers Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Bankers Association, the Clearing House Payments Company L.L.C., Financial Services Roundtable and Consumer Bankers Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Bankers Association, the Clearing House Payments Company LLC, Financial Services Roundtable, and the Independent Community Bankers of America in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Bankers Association,the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America,the Consumer Bankers Association, the Financial Services Roundtable, the Housing Policy Council, and State Banking Associations in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Bar Association as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Bar Association as Amicus Curiae Supporting Petitioner


Brief for American Bar Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Beverage Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Bible Society, Association of Christian Schools International, Association of Gospel Rescue Missions, Awana Clubs International, Azusa Pacific University, Bethesda Ministries, the Christian and Missionary Alliance, Christian Camp & Conference Association, Compassion International, Crista Ministries, Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability, Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, the Navigators, New Tribes Mission, Trans World Radio, and Upward Sports in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Booksellers Association, American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression, American Library Association, Association of American Publishers, Inc., Comic Book Legal Defense Fund, Freedom to Read Foundation, Great Lakes Independent Booksellers Association, Mountain & Plains Independent Booksellers Association, Pacific Northwest Booksellers Association, Southern Independent Booksellers Alliance, Annie Bloom's Books, Changing Hands Bookstore, Inc., Harvard Book Store, Inc., Paulina Springs Books, Powell's Bookstore, Inc., Schuler Books & Music, Tattered Cover, Inc., The King's English, Inc., Weller Book Works, Village Books, and Dark Horse Comics, Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression, American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, Association of American Publishers, inc., Comic Book Legal Defense Fund, Entertainment Merchants Association, Freedom to Read Foundation, Pen American Center, Village Voice Media Holdings, llc, and Writers Guild of America, West, inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Business Media, the Coalition for Healthcare Communications, the Consumer Data Industry Association, Corelogic, the National Association of Professional Background Screeners, and Reed Elsevier, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Cable Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Center for Law and Justice and the Christian Legal Society in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Center for Law and Justice in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union and American Civil Liberties Union of Florida in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union and American Civil Liberties Union of Kansas and Western Missouri in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union and American Civil Liberties Union of Wisconsin in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union and the American Civil Liberties Union of Alabama in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union and the American Civil Liberties Union of Maryland in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union, ACLU Of Maryland, ACLU Of Northern California in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union, ACLU of Missouri, American Humanist Association, Center for Inquiry, Freedom from Religion Foundation, and People for the American Way Foundation in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, Impact Fund, Lawyers'?? Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Legal Aid Society of New York City, the National Employment Lawyers Association, New York, the National Fair Housing Alliance, People for the American Way Foundation, and Public Justice in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Liberties Union, Et Al., in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Civil Rights Union and the Heartland Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Civil Rights Union in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Civil Rights Union in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Medical Association, and Massachusetts Medical Society in Support of Respondents


Brief for American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Physicians for Reproductive Health, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Nurses Association, et al. in Support of Respondents


Brief for American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Physicians for Reproductive Health, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Nurses Association, et al. in Support of the Government


Brief for American College of Tax Counsel in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Companies in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Council of Trustees and Alumni, the John William Pope Center for Higher Education Policy, and Judicial Education Project in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Council on Education and 37 Other Higher Education Organizations in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Council on Education and 48 Other Higher Education Organizations In Support of Respondents


Brief for American Council on Education and other Higher Education Organizations in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Council on Education and Six Other Higher Education Organizations in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Educational Research Association et al. in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Electric Power Company, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Farm Bureau Federation, American Petroleum Institute, Associated General Contractors of America, National Association of Manufacturers, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, and National Mining Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Federation of Government Employees in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Oranizations and Change To Win in Support of Respondents and Suggesting Affirmance


Brief for American Federation of Teachers and American Association of University Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Financial Services Association and Consumer Mortgage Coalition in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Forest Resource Council, American Farm Bureau Federation, Public Lands Council, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, and International Association of Geophysical Contractors in Support of Respondent


Brief for American History Professors as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Hospital Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Immigration Council and American Immigration Lawyers Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Immigration Council, American Immigration Lawyers Association, and National Immigration Project of the National Lawyers Guild in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Immigration Council, National Immigration Law Center, Service Employees International Union, Advancement Project, LatinoJustice PRLDEF, the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, and Others in Support Petitioners


Brief for American Insurance Association, the National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies, and the Property Casualty Insurance Association of America in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association ("AIPLA") in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Jewish Committee and Jewish Council for Public Affairs in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Jewish Committee and Jewish Council for Public Affairs in Support of the Government


Brief for American Jewish Committee in Support of Neither Party


Brief for American Jewish Committee in Support of the Petitioner


Brief for American Jewish Committee, Anti-Defamation League, Jewish Council for Public Affairs, Jewish Social Policy Action Network, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, National Center for Lesbian Rights, Union for Reform Judaism, Central Conference of American Rabbis, and Women of Reform Judaism in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Jewish Committee, Jewish Council for Public Affairs, Union for Reform Judaism, and Central Conference of American Rabbis in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Jewish Committee, Union for Reform Judaism, Central Conference of American Rabbis, Women of Reform Judaism, Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Meat Institute, North American Meat Association, National Turkey Federation, National Chicken Council in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Medical Association, American Society of Human Genetics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Osteopathic Association, American College of Legal Medicine, and the Medical Society of the State of New York in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Nurses Association; American Academy of Pediatrics; American Medical Student Association; Doctors for America; theNational Hispanic Medical Association; and the National Physicians Alliance in Support of Petitioners and Reversal on the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for American Payroll Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Petroleum Institute and National Petrochemical and Refiners Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Petroleum Institute, American Road & Transportation Builders Association, Foundation for Environmental and Economic Progress, National Association of Home Builders, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, National Council of Farmer Cooperatives, National Mining Association, Public Lands Council, and Real Estate Roundtable in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Planning Association and Housing Land Advocates in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Psychiatric Association and American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Psychiatric Association, American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, and American Psychological Association Investigators in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American Public Health Association and Whitman-Walker Health in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Public Power Association and National Rural Electric Cooperative Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Sociological Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Sociological Association in Support of Respondent Kristin M. Perry and Respondent Edith Schlain Windsor


Brief for American Soybean Association, Illinois Soybean Association, Indiana Soybean Alliance, Iowa Soybean Association, Kansas Soybean Association, Kentucky Soybean Association, Michigan Soybean Association, Minnesota Soybean Growers Association, Mississippi Soybean Association, Missouri Soybean Association, Nebraska Soybean Association, North Dakota Soybean Growers Association, Ohio Soybean Association, Tennessee Soybean Association, Virginia Soybean Association, And Wisconsin Soybean Association, National Corn Growers Association, National Association of Wheat Growers, American Sugarbeet Growers Association, and Growers For Biotechnology in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Subcontractors Association in Support of Respondent J-Crew Management, Inc. Seeking Affirmation of the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit


Brief for American Thoracic Society in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Thoracic Society in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Thoracic Society in Support of Respondents


Brief for American Trucking Associations, Inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Trucking Associations, Inc., in Support of Petitioners


Brief for American Trucking Associations, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for American Watch Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee and Other Organizations Supporting Civil Rights for American Muslims in Support of Petitioner


Brief for American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Americans for Campaign Reform in Support of Appellee


Brief for Americans for Forfeiture Reform in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Americans for Forfeiture Reform in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Americans for Forfeiture Reform in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Americans for Immigrant Justice, Et Al. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Americans for Peace Now in Support of Respondent


Brief for Americans United For Separation of Church and State and People for the American Way Foundation in Support of Respondents


Brief for Americans United for Separation of Church and State in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Americans United for Separation of Church and State in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Americans United for Separation of Church and State in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Americans United for Separation of Church and State in Support of Respondent


Brief for Americans United for Separation of Church and State, American Civil Liberties Union, ACLU of Michigan, National Council of Jewish Women, Sikh Council on Religion and Education, and Unitarian Universalist Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Americans United for Separation of Church and State, American Jewish Committee, the Anti-Defamation League, the Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty, and the Interfaith Alliance Foundation as in Support of Respondent


Brief for Americans United For Separation Of Church And State; American Civil Liberties Union; ACLU Of Illinois; ACLU Of Northern California Foundation, Inc.; ACLU Of New Jersey; And People For The American Way Foundation in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amgen Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amherst, Allegheny, Barnard, Bates, Bowdoin, Bryn Mawr, Carleton, Colby Connecticut, Davidson, Dickinson, Franklin & Marshall, Grinnell, Hamilton, Hampshire, Haverford, Lafayette, Macalester, Middlebury, Mount Holyoke, Oberlin, Pomona, Reed, Sarah Lawrence, Simmons, Smith, St. Olaf, Swarthmore, Trinity, Union, Vassar, Wellesley, and Williams Colleges, and Bucknell, Colgate, Tufts, Washington & Lee, and Wesleyan Universities, in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae 77 Hospitals and Southwest Consulting Associates


Brief for Amici Curiae Abbvie, Inc., Allergan, Inc., and Celgene Corp. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae Ahold U.S.A., Inc.; Albertsons LLC; the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, Inc.; H.E. Butt Grocery Co.; Hy-Vee, Inc.; the Kroger Co.; Meijer, Inc.; Publix Super Markets, Inc.; Raley's; Rite Aid Corporation; Safeway Inc.; Supervalu, Inc.; and Walgreen Co. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amici Curiae American Jewish Committee, Anti-Defamation League, County of Santa Clara, Democracy 21, Demos, Friends of the Earth, Government Accountability Project, National Council of Jewish Women, Natural Resources Defense Councils


Brief for Amici Curiae Amnesty International USA, the Center for Constitutional Rights, Human Rights First, and the Rutherford Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amici Curiae Antitrust Law & Economics Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Association of American Medical Colleges, et al., in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Bipartisan Group of 65 Current and Former State Legislators in Support of Appellees


Brief for Amici Curiae California Women's Law Center, Gender Justice, Legal Voice, and Southwest Women's Law Center in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Cause of Action Institute and National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae Charles Fried and Robert C. Post in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Amici Curiae Charlotte Lozier Institute, March for Life Education Fund, and National Pro-Life Women's Caucus in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amici Curiae Corpus-Linguistics Scholars Professors Brian Slocum, Stefan Th. Gries, and Lawrence Solan in Support of Employees


Brief for Amici Curiae Council for Christian Colleges & Universities, et al., in Support of the Employers


Brief for Amici Curiae Criminal Defense Experts


Brief for Amici Curiae Defend My Privacy, et al., in Support of the Employers


Brief for Amici Curiae E-Discovery Institute et al., in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Amici Curiae Equal Rights Advocates, Planned Parenthood Affiliates of California, California Women Lawyers, Hadassah, and the Family Violence Appellate Project in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Florida Water Environment Association - Utility Council; Florida Rural Water Association; and Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group - Environmental Committee in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae Former Administrators of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Former United States Immigration Judges in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae GLBTQ Legal Advocates & Defenders and National Center for Lesbian Rights in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Institutions of Higher Education in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae International Council of Shopping Centers, Investment Program Association, Nareit, National Association of Retailers, Real Estate Roundtable, National Multifamily Housing Council, NAIOP, American Farm Bureau Federation, and South Dakota Farm Bureau Federation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae J. Gregory Sidak and Robert D. Willig in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae John M. Connor, Martin Gaynor, Daniel McFadden, Roger Noll, Jeffrey M. Perloff, Joseph A. Stiglitz, Lawrence J. White, and Ralph A. Winter in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amici Curiae Kinder Morgan Energy Partners, L.P. and Plantation Pipe Line Company, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Legal Scholars in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amici Curiae National Association of Muslim Lawyers and Other Muslim Bar Associations in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae National Automobile Dealers Association and State Automobile Dealers Associations for Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon and Washington State in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae National Taxpayers Union Foundation, Americans for Prosperity, Freedomworks, Freedom Partners Chamber of Commerce, and Institute for Policy Innovation in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Nineteen Colleges and Universities in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae of Immigration, Labor and Employment Law Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Prof. David S. Evans and Prof. Richard Schmalensee in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Retail Litigation Center, Inc. and Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America


Brief for Amici Curiae Retail Litigation Center, Inc., et al.


Brief for Amici Curiae Scholars of Constitutional Law and Legal History Supporting the First Circuit's Ruling on the Appointments Clause Issue


Brief for Amici Curiae Scholars of Immigration Law in Support of Respondents on the History of the Immigration and Nationality Act


Brief for Amici Curiae the American Immigration Lawyers Association and the Immigrant Defense Project in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae the National Immigrant Justice Center and the American Immigration Lawyers Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amici Curiae the Presiding Bishop and President of the House of Deputies of the Episcopal Church, et al., in Support of Employee Litigants


Brief for Amici Curiae Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, et al.


Brief for Amici Curiae Washington State Tax Practitioners in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amici Curiae Wisconsin State Senate and Wisconsin State Assembly in Support of Appellants


Brief for Amici Curiae Women Business Owners and CEOs in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amicour IP Group, LLC in Support of Respondent


Brief for Amicus Curiae American Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Affirmance


Brief for Amicus Curiae Australian Retailers Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amicus Curiae Center for Arizona Policy in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amicus Curiae Center for Media and Democracy in Support of Appellees


Brief for Amicus Curiae Chicago Access Corporation


Brief for Amicus Curiae Congressman Lamar Smith


Brief for Amicus Curiae Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren


Brief for Amicus Curiae Dow Jones & Company, Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amicus Curiae Equally American Legal Defense and Education Fund in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Amicus Curiae Eric S. Lander in Support of Appellees


Brief for Amicus Curiae European Company Lawyers Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Amicus Curiae Great Lakes Justice Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amicus Curiae Immigration Law Scholars in Support of the Respondents


Brief for Amicus Curiae Immigration Reform Law Institute in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amicus Curiae Immigration Reform Law Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amicus Curiae Immigration Reform Law Institute in Support of the Petitioners


Brief for Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment Below


Brief for Amicus Curiae Institute for Free Speech


Brief for Amicus Curiae Institute for Free Speech in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amicus Curiae International Business Machines Corporation in Support of Respondent


Brief for Amicus Curiae Jewish Coalition for Religious Liberty


Brief for Amicus Curiae Libertarian National Committee in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amicus Curiae Megan McCracken and Jennifer Moreno


Brief for Amicus curiae Muscogee (Creek) Nation


Brief for Amicus Curiae National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys in Support of Respondent


Brief for Amicus curiae National Association of Wine Retailers


Brief for Amicus Curiae National Immigrant Justice Center


Brief for Amicus Curiae New York City Sergeants Benevolent Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amicus Curiae of Congressman Lamar Smith


Brief for Amicus Curiae Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America


Brief for Amicus Curiae Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America


Brief for Amicus Curiae Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America in Support of Petition for a Writ of Certiorari


Brief for Amicus Curiae Professor Gregory C. Sisk in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Amicus Curiae Professor Joel D. Hesch


Brief for Amicus Curiae Senator Joseph B. Carnati, III in Support of Appellees


Brief for Amicus Curiae Streamlined Sales Tax Governing Board, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amicus Curiae the Cato Institute in Support of Respondents


Brief for Amicus Curiae the Civil Jury Project at New York University School of Law in Support of Neither Side


Brief for Amicus Curiae the National Association of Disability Representatives


Brief for Amicus Curiae Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States


Brief for Amicus Curiae Wisconsin Manufacturers & Commerce in Support of Appellants


Brief for Amicus Curiae by Invitation of the Court


Brief for Amnesty International Human Rights Watch, and the International Commision of Jurists in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Amnesty International, et al. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for And Then There Were None in Support of Respondents


Brief for Animal Health Institute and Merial Limited in Support of Respondents


Brief for Anne Alstott, Marvin Chirlestein, Mihir Desai, Michael Graetz, Daniel Halperin, Mitchell Kane, Lawrence Lokken, Robert Peroni and Alvin Warren in Support of Respondent


Brief for Anthony Corrado, Thomas Mann, and Norman Ornstein in Support of Respondent


Brief for Anti-Defamation League in Support of Appellants


Brief for Anti-Defamation League in Support of Respondents


Brief for Anti-Defamation League, American Israel Public Affairs Committee, Association of Proud American Citizens Born in Jerusalem, Israel, B'Nai B'Rith International, Central Conference of American Rabbis, Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America, Inc., Jewish Council for Public Affairs, National Council of Jewish Women, National Council of Young Israel, Union for Reform Judaism, Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America, Women of Reform Judaism, and Women's League for Conservative Judaism in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Antitrust Economists in Support of Respondents


Brief for Antitrust Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Antitrust Professors and Scholarsin Support of Respondent


Brief for Antitrust Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Antitrust Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Antitrust-Law Professors and Economists in Support of Respondents


Brief for APA Watch in Support of Neither Party


Brief for APA Watch in Support of Neither Party


Brief for APA Watch in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Apotex, Inc. and Apotex Corp. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Apotex, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Apotex, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Appellant Arizona State Legislature


Brief for Appellant Shaun McCutcheon


Brief for Appellants


Brief for Appellants


Brief for Appellants Beverly R. Gill, et al.


Brief for Appellants Linda Lamone, et al.


Brief for Appellants McCrory and Whitney


Brief for Appellants Robert A. Rucho, et al.


Brief for Appellants Robert J. Wittman, et al.


Brief for Appellants Sue Evenwel, et al.


Brief for Appellants Virginia House of Delegates, et al.


Brief for Appellants Wesley W. Harris, et al.


Brief for Appellants, Alabama Democratic Conference, et al.


Brief for Appellants, Alabama Legislative Black Caucus, et al.


Brief for Appellee Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission


Brief for Appellee Secretary of State Michele Reagan in Support of Appellants


Brief for Appellees


Brief for Appellees


Brief for Appellees (Congressional Districts)


Brief for Appellees Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission, et al.


Brief for Appellees Gloria Peronhuballah & James Farkas


Brief for Appellees Golden Bethune-Hill, et al.


Brief for Appellees Greg Abbott, in His Official Capacity as Governor of Texas, et al.


Brief for Appellees John Benisek, et al.


Brief for Appellees Latino Redistricting Task Force, Et Al., Mexican American Legislative Caucus and Shannon Perez, Et Al.


Brief for Appellees other than the United States (State House Districts)


Brief for Appellees Texas Latino Redistricting Task Force and Mexican American Legislative Caucus, and Shannon Perez


Brief for Appellees Texas Latino Redistricting Task Force, et al., Mexican American Legislative Caucus and Shannon Perez, et al.


Brief for Appellees Texas Latino Redistricting Task Force, et al., Mexican American Legislative Caucus and Shannon Perez, et al.


Brief for Appellees the Conference of NAACP Branches and Congresspersons Eddie Bernice Johnson, Sheila Jackson-Lee, and Alexander Green


Brief for Appellees Virginia State Board of Elections


Brief for Appellees Wendy Davis and League of United Latin American Citizens


Brief for Appellees William Whitford, et al.


Brief for Appellees, Alabama, et al.


Brief for Apple Inc. and Intel Corporation in Support of Reversal


Brief for Apple, Inc. in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Aquatic Scientists and Scientific Societies as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Arbitration and Contracts Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Arbitration Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for Arbitration Scholar Imre S. Szalai as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Arizona and Thirteen Other States in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Arizona Association for Justice/Arizona Trial Lawyers Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Arizona Attorneys for Criminal Justice, Connecticut Criminal Defense Lawyers Association, and Iowa Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers in Support of Respondent


Brief for Arizona Employers for Immigration Reform, the Arizpna Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, the American Subcontractors Association of Arizona, and Hill & Usher, L.L.C., in Support of Respondent


Brief for Arizona, Arkansas, Idaho, Indiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Vermont and Washington in Support of Respondent


Brief for Arizona, Georgia, South Carolina, and South Dakota in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Arkansas, Alabama, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming in Support of Respondent


Brief for Arkansas, et al. in Support of Respondent


Brief for ARRIS Group, Inc., Arm, Inc., Charter Communications, Inc., Cox Communications, Inc., HP Inc., and Netapp, Inc. as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Art Com Innovationpool GmbH in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Arup Laboratories, Inc., and Laboratory Conporation of America Holdings (d/b/a Labcorp) in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Asbestos Disease Awareness Organization in Support of Respondents


Brief for Asian American Justice Center, National Council of La Raza, Latino Justice PRLDF, Drug Policy Alliance, United Sikhs, South Asian Americans Leading Together, Asian Law Alliance, Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund, Asian Law Caucus, Asian Pacific American Legal Center of Southern California, Northern Manhattan Coalition for Immigrant Rights as in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Asian American Public Interest Groups in Support of Respondents


Brief for Asian Americans Advancing Justice AAJC and Other Immigrants' Rights Groups in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Asian Americans Advancing Justice and Other Organizations in Support of Respondents


Brief for Asian Americans Advancing Justice, AAJC and other civil rights and advocacy groups in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Asian Americans Advancing Justice, AAJC, National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials Educational Fund and 72 Other Organizations in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Asian Americans Advancing Justice, LatinoJustice PLRDEF, and Other Civil Rights and Immigrants' Rights Groups in Support of Respondent


Brief for Asista Immigration Assistance, the Immigrant Defense Project, the Immigrant Legal Resource Center, the National Immigration Project of the National Lawyers Guild, and the Washington Defender Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Askeladden LLC in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Askeladden, LLC in Support of Respondent


Brief for Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers; National Association for Rational Sexual Offense Laws and North Carolina RSOL in Support of Petitioner and Reversal


Brief for Association Internationale Pour La Protection De La Propriete Intellectuelle and International Association for the Protection of Intellectual in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Association of American Railroads in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Association of American Railroads in Support of Respondent


Brief for Association of American Universities, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Council on Education, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Independent Research Institutes, Association of Public and Landgrant Universities, the Association of University Technology Managers, Council on Governmental Relations, In Support of Petitioner


Brief for Association of Art Museum Directors, The Art Institute of Chicago, The J. Paul Getty Trust, Museum Associates dba Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, the Whitney Museum of American Art, et al., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Association of Independent Passenger Rail Operators in Support of Respondent


Brief for Association of Oregon Counties, Idaho Association of Counties, Association of O & C Counties, and Douglas County in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Association of Service and Computer Dealers International, Inc. North American Association Of Telecom Dealers And Owners Rights Initiative in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Association of State Criminal Investigative Agencies, International Association of Chiefs of Police, National Sheriffs' Association, Major City Chiefs Association, Major County Sheriffs' Association, Association of Prosecuting Attorneys, and Rockland County District Attorney, in Support of Respondent


Brief for Association on American Indian Affairs, National Congress of American Indians, National Indian Child Welfare Association, Indian Tribes, and Other Indian Organization in Support of Respondent


Brief for AT&T Services Inc. and United States Telecom Association in Support of Affirmance


Brief for Atlantic County and Gary Merline in Support of Respondent


Brief for Atlantic Legal Foundation and New England Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Atlantic Legal Foundation and the International Association of Defense Counsel


Brief for Atlantic Legal Foundation and the International Association of Defense Counsel in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Atlantic Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Atlantic Legal Foundation, Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence and Reason Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Atmospheric Scientists and Air Quality Modeling Experts in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Attorneys Information Exchange Group in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Attorneys'?? Liability Assurance Society, Inc., a Risk Retention Group in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Aurelius and Assured


Brief for Aurelius Entities in Support of Respondent


Brief for Austin Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Autism Speaks in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Auto Care Association and International Imaging Technology Council in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association, Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association, and International Imaging Technology Council in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bally Technologies, Inc., Bally Gaming, Inc., and SHFL Entertainment, Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bank of America, NA in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bankruptcy Law Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bankruptcy Law Professors Robert M. Lawless, Bruce A. Markell, and John A. E. Pottow in Support of Affirmance


Brief for Bankruptcy Law Scholars in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bankruptcy Law Scholars in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Bankruptcy Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty and General Synod of the United Church of Christ in Support of Respondent


Brief for Baptist Joint Committee for Religious Liberty in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bausch & Lomb Incorporated in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bay Area Lawyers for Individual Freedom in Support of Petitioners


Brief for BayBio in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bayer AG and Bayer Corp. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bayer AG in Support of Respondent


Brief for Bayhdole25, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Baylen J. Linnekin and Keep Food Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Beckett Fund for Religious Liberty in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Belmont Abbey College in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Benjamin F. Hobbs, Shmuel S. Oren, James Sweeney, and Frank Wolak in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law Tax Clinic in Support of the Respondents


Brief for Benjamin Todd Jealous, Delores L. McQuinn, and Algie T. Howell in Support of Petitioner


Brief for BiLaw in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Bioethics Defense Fund in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Bioethics Defense Fund, John M. Thorp, Jr., M.D., and Maureen L. Condic, Ph.D. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Biotechnology Industry Organization in Support of Respondent


Brief for Biotechnology Industry Organization in Support of Respondent


Brief for Biotechnology Industry Organization in Support of Respondents


Brief for Biotechnology Innovation Organization and Croplife International in Support of Respondent


Brief for Biotechnology Innovation Organization and the Association of University Technology Managers in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Biotechnology Innovation Organization in Support of Respondents


Brief for Biotime, Inc., in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Bipartisan and Bicameral Coalition of 121 Texas Legislators in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bipartisan Economic Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bipartisan Former Members of Congress in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Bipartisan Group of 174 United States Senators and Members of the United States House of Representatives in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bipartisan Group of Current and Former Members of Congress as Amici Curiae in Support of Appellees


Brief for Bipartisan State and Local Legislators in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Birch Bayh in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Birny Birnbaum, M.S., M.C.P.; Joshua Fischman, J.D., PH.D.; and Robert E. Litan, J.D., M. Phil., PH.D. as in Support of Respondent


Brief for Birth Mother in support of Petitioners and in Support of Respondent Baby Girl Supporting Reversal


Brief for Bishopaccountability.Org, the Cardozo Advocates for Kids, Child Protection Project, the Foundation to Abolish Child Sex Abuse, Jewish Board of Advocates for Children, Inc., Kidsafe Foundation, the National Black Church Initiative, the National Center for Victims of Crime, Survivors for Justice, and The Survivors Network Of Those Abused by Priests in Support of Respondent


Brief for Bishops of the Episcopal Churchin California, Connecticut, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, and Washington and the District Of Columbia; the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Manhattan Conference of the Metropolitan New York Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America; the Rabbinical Assembly; the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association; Reconstructionist Rabbinical College; Rabbi Akiva Herzfeld of Shaarey Tphiloh; the Union for Reform Judaism; Unitarian Universalist Association; United Church of Christ; the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism; Affirmation; Covenant Network of Presbyterians; Friends for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Concerns; Methodist Federation for Social Action; More Light Presbyterians; Presbyterian Welcome; Reconciling Ministries Network; Reconciling Works: Lutherans for Full Participation; and Religious Institute, Inc.in Support of Respondent Edith Schlain Windsor


Brief for BJC Health Care, Capital Area Health Consortium, INC., Henry Ford Health System, Memorial Sloankettering Cancer Center, and Oregon Health & Science University in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Black Women's Health Imperative, Joined by Other Black Women's Health Organizations, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Black Women~s Health Imperative in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bloomberg LP, the McGraw Hill Companies, Hearst Corporation, Propublica, Associated Press, the Reporter's Committee for Freedom of the Press, and the Texas Tribune in Support of Respondent


Brief for Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Massachusetts, Inc., in Support of Petitioners Regarding the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for Blue Cross Blue Shield Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Board of Commissioners for Carroll County, Maryland; Board of Commissioners for Cobb County, Georgia; Board of Commissioners for Rowan County, North Carolina; City of Lakeland, Florida; County Commission for Franklin County, Missouri; Forsyth County, North Carolina, Board of Commissioners; Hamilton County, Tennessee, Board of Commissioners, and The Franklin Select Board, Franklin, Vermont, Addressing the Merits in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bonnie and Shannon Hofer; Roger, Loreal, and Sierra Lauderbaugh; and Craig and Esther Adams in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Boston Bar Association et al. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Boston Patent Law Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for BP America, Caterpillar, Conoco Phillips, General Electric, Honeywell, and International Business Machines in Support of Respondent


Brief for Braun and Hummel in Support of Respondents


Brief for Breazeale, Sachse & Wilson, llp in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Brennan Center for Justice at N.Y.U. School of Law in Support of Respondent


Brief for Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law and Justice at Stake in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, American Civil Liberties Union Foundation, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Restore the Fourth, Inc. and R Street Institute as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondent


Brief for Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law, Justice at Stake, Campaign Legal Center, Demos, Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc.; Common Cause, and the Center for Media and Democracy in Support of Respondent


Brief for Brevard County, Florida, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Brian R. Galvin in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Brian W. Bulger, Tammie L. Rattray and David A. Wimmer in Support of Respondent


Brief for Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees Division/Ibt in Support of Respondents


Brief for Brown University, University of Chicago, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Duke University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, Stanford University, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University in Support of Respondents


Brief for Bruce Rauner, Governor of Illinois; and Kaneland, Illinois, Unified School District #302 Administrative Support Staff in Support of Petitioners


Brief for BSA the Software Alliance in Support of Neither Party


Brief for BSA The Software Alliance in Support of Respondent


Brief for BSA the Software Alliance in Support of Respondent


Brief for BSA | the Software Alliance in Support of Petitioner


Brief for BSA | The Software Alliance in Support of Respondents


Brief for BSA | The Software Alliance in Support of Respondents


Brief for BSA, the Software Alliance in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bundesverband Der Deutschen Industrie E.V., Deutscher Industrie- Und Handelskammertag E.V., Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan, and Paul L.C. Torremans in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie E.V., Deutscher Industrie-und Handelskammertag E.V., Ibec Clg, Konfederacja Lewiatan, and Mouvement des Enterprises de France as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondent


Brief for Business Organizations as Amici Curiae in Support of the Employees


Brief for Business Organizations in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Business Roundtable and the Society for Corporate Governance as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioners


Brief for Business Software Alliance in Support of Respondent


Brief for Business Software Alliance in Support of Respondent


Brief for Business, Home Building, Real Estate, and Farming Organizations as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioner


Brief for Cablevision Systems Corporation in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cake Artists as Amici Curiae in Support of Neither Party


Brief for California and Washington in Support Respondent


Brief for California Assembly Speaker John A. Perez and Law Professors Concerned with Representative Democracy in Support of Respondents


Brief for California Association of Scholars, Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, Reason Foundation, and Individual Rights Foundation, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California Attorneys for Criminal Justice and the California Academy of Appellate Lawyers in Support of Respondent


Brief for California Attorneys for Criminal Justice in Support of Petitioners


Brief for California Business, Civic, Educational, and Religious Figures and Institutions in Support of Petitioners


Brief for California Construction Trucking Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California Employment Lawyers Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for California Endowment in Support of Petitioners and in Favor of the Reversal of the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for California Farm Bureau Federation, California Cattlemen's Association, California Building Industry Association, Building Industry Legal Defense Foundation, & California Business Properties Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for California Health and Human Services agency in Support of Petitioners


Brief for California Institute of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University, Case Western Reserve University, Emory University, George Washington University, Northwestern University, Rice University, Tulane University, University of Rochester and Washington University in St. Louis in Support of Respondents


Brief for California Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for California Optometric Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California Public Employees' Retirement System and California State Teachers' Retirement System in Support of Respondent


Brief for California Public Employees' Retirement System, et al in Support of Petitioners Regarding the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for California Public-School Teachers as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California Public-School Teachers, the Christian Educators Association International, and the Center for Individual Rights in Support of Petitioners


Brief for California School Employees Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for California Social Science Researchers and Admissions Experts in Support of Respondents


Brief for California State Sheriffs' Association, California Police Chiefs' Association and California Peace Officers' Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for California State Sheriffs' Association, California Police Chiefs' Association, California Peace Officers' Association, National Sheriffs' Association, Major County Sheriffs' Association, and Los Angeles County Police Chiefs' Association in Favor of Petitioner


Brief for California Tow Truck Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California, Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia,Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia,Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California, Alabama, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Washington, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico in Support of Respondent


Brief for California, Arizona, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina in Support of Petitioner


Brief for California, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and Wyoming in Support of Respondent


Brief for California, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Delaware, District Of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, New Mexico, New York, Rhode Island, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington in Support of Federal Petitioners and Respondents


Brief for Calpine Corporation in Support of Respondent


Brief for Cambridge Fiduciary Services LLC in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cameron A. Blau, Esq., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Campaign for Southern Equality and Equality Federation in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Campaign Legal Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Campaign Legal Center, the League of Women Voters of the United States, the American Civil Liberties Union, Common Cause, and Democracy 21 in Support of Appellees


Brief for Canavan Foundation, Claire Altman Heine Foundation, March of Dimes Foundation, Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered, National Association for Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum, and Ovarian Cancer National Alliance in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cancer Legal Research Center of the Disability Rights Legal Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Cardx, Llc in Support of Petitioners


Brief for CareSource in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cargill, Incorporated; the Coca-Cola Company; General Mills, Inc.; and Hormel Foods Corporation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Carl E. Heaste in His Official Capacity as Speaker of the New York State Assembly in Support of Appellees


Brief for Carlos A. Ball in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Carmelite Sisters of the Most Sacred Heart of Los Angeles, Religious Sisters of Mercy of Alma, Michigan, and School Sisters of Christ the King of Lincoln, Nebraska in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Casey Family Programs, Child Welfare League of America, Children's Defense Fund, Donaldson Adoption Institute, North American Council on Adoptable Children, Voice for Adoption, and Twelve Other National Child Welfare Organizations in Support of Respondents


Brief for Catholic Answers, Christian Legal Society, and Catholic Vote Education Fund in Support of Petitioner Hollingsworth and Respondent Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group and Supporting Reversal


Brief for Catholics for Choice, Call to Action, Corpus, a Critical Mass, DignityUSA, the National Coalition of American Nuns, New Ways Ministry, the Quixote Center/Catholics Speak Out, the Women~s Alliance for Theology, Ethics and Ritual, and the Women~s ORdination Conference, in Support of Respondents


Brief for Catholics for the Common Good and the Marriage Law Project in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute and P.J. O'Rourke in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute and Pacific Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute in Support of Neither Party


Brief for CATO Institute in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cato Institute in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cato Institute in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cato Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute in Support of Respondents


Brief for Cato Institute, American Farm Bureau Federation, American Land Title Association, National Cattlemen's Beef Association, Public Lands Council and Professors of Property Law in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute, Andrew J. Coulson in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cato Institute, Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, and Atlantic Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cato Institute, Professors Jonathan H. Adler, Roederick M. Hills, Jr., James Huffman, Daniel A. Lyons, Andrew P. Morriss, Nathan A. Sales, and David Schoenbrod in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cato Institute, Rutherford Institute, Reason Foundation, and Individual Rights Foundation as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cause of Action Institute in Support of Appellants


Brief for Cause of Action Institute in Support of Repondents


Brief for Cause of Action, Southeastern Legal Foundation and Texas Public Policy Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Causeway Capital Management llc in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cecilia Polanco, Star Wingate-Bey, Itzel Libertad Vasquez-Rodriguez, R.J., A.J., G.E., I.G., M.B., K.C., Y.D., and R.H. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Center for Competitive Politics in Support of Appellants


Brief for Center for Competitive Politics in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence and Harbor Trucking Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Respondent


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Respondents


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Respondents


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Respondents


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, Missouri Baptist Convention Christian Life Commission, and Christian Legal Society in Support of Respondents


Brief for Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence, Pacific Legal Foundation, and Atlantic Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center for Democracy & Technology and Electronic Frontier Foundation in Support of Petitioner in No. 13-132 and Respondent in no. 13-212


Brief for Center for Democracy & Technology, CTIA-The Wireless Association, United States Telecom Association, Internet Infrastructure Coalition, Digital Media Association, and Information Technology Industry Council in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Center for Intellectual Property Research of the Indiana University Maurer School of Law and Other Scholars in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center on the Administration of Criminal Law in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Center on the Administration of Criminal Law in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Center on the Administration of Criminal Law, New York University School of Law in Support of Respondent


Brief for Center on the Administration of Criminal Law, New York University School of Law, in Support of Respondent


Brief for Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth, et al., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Central States, Southeast and Southwest Areas Health and Welfare Fund in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Centurylink, Qwest Communications International, and Windstream Corporation in Support of Respondent


Brief for Certain Current and Former Members of Congress in Support of Respondents


Brief for Certain Family Members of Victims Killed by Youths in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Certain Members of Congress in Support of Respondents


Brief for Certain Plaintiffs in Re: Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001 in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Certain TOUSA Defendants in Support of the Petitioner


Brief for Certified Class of Pharmaceutical Representatives from Johnson and Johnson in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Chamber of Commerce in Support of Respondents


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America & National Association of Manufacturers in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and the Property Casualty Insurers Association of America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America and the Property Casualty Insurers Association of America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in Support of Respondent


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in Support of Respondent


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, American Health Care Association, Business Roundtable, National Association of Manufacturers, and Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, National Association of Manufacturers, and Retail Litigation Center, Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, National Association of Manufacturers, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, and Business Roundtable in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, National Federation of Independent Business, and Retail Litigation Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America, the ERISA Industry Committee, the American Benefits Council, the Plan Sponsor Council of America, and the National Association of Manufacturers, in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Chamber of Commerce of the United Statess of America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chaplain Alliance for Religious Liberty in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Charles B. Gittings, Jr., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Charles E. Sisney in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Charles W. Adams in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chasidei Chabad in Support of Respondents


Brief for Checkpoint Software, Inc., Collateral Analytics, LLC, Daily Motion, Inc., Github, Inc., Guidewire Software, Inc., Hipmunk, Inc., Jive Software, Inc., Linkedin, Inc., Message Systems, Inc., Netflix, Inc., Newegg, Inc., Quantum Corporation, Rackspace, Inc., Ring Central, Inc., Trulia, Inc., Twitter, Inc., and Yelp Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Chemical Weapons Convention Negotiators and Experts in Support of Respondent


Brief for Cheryl Campagno, Daniel D. Hill, and Frances K. Jennings in Support of Respondent


Brief for Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Shell Oil Company, ConocoPhillips, E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Company, and Edison International in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Chicago Area Translators and Interpreters Association, Colorado Translators Association, and El Paso Interpreters and Translators Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Chicago Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Chief Justice Pascal F. Calogero, Jr., the Louisiana Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers (LACDL), and the Promise of Justice Initiative (PJI) in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Child Advocacy Organizations in Support of Petitioners on the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for Child Advocacy Organizations in Support of Respondents Supporting Reversal


Brief for Child Justice, Inc. and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children in Support of Respondent


Brief for Child Justice, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Children First Foundation, Inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for China Chamber of International Commerce as Amicus in Support of Respondents


Brief for Choose Life, Wisconsin, Inc., Illinois Choose Life, Inc. and Choose Life America, Inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for Chosun International, Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Chris Kluwe, Brendon Abynbadejo, and Scott Fujita in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Christian Alliance for Indian Child Welfare in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Christian Educators Association International and Advocates for Faith and Freedom in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Christian Legal Society and Prison Fellowship in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Christian Legal Society, National Association of Evangelicals, And the National Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Christian Legal Society, National Association of Evangelicals, National Hispanic Christian Leadership Conference, Queens Federation of Churches, and Institutional Religious Freedom Alliance in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Christian Legal Society, the Anglican Church in North America, Christian Medical Association, Family Research Council, National Religious Broadcasters, and the Queens Federation of Churches in Support of the Petitioner


Brief for CHS Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Church Alliance in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Church Defendant in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Church-State Scholars Frederick Mark Gedicks, Caitlin Borgmann, Caroline Mala Corbin, Steven K. Green, B. Jessie Hill, Richard Schragger, Micah Schwartzman, Elizabeth Sepper, Nelson Tebbe, et al., in Support of the Government


Brief for Church-State Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Cisco Systems, Inc., Dell, Inc., and Intel Corporation in Support of Reversal


Brief for Cisco Systems, Inc., eBay, Inc., Netflix, Inc., Office Depot, Inc., Toyota Motor Corporation, and Trimble Navigation Limited in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Cities, Counties, and Elected Officials in Support of Respondents


Brief for CitizenLink, Charlotte Lozier Institute and Students for Life of America, in Support of Respondents


Brief for Citizens Equal Rights Foundation and Central New York Fair Business Association as Amici Curiae


Brief for Citizens Equal Rights Foundation and Central New York Fair Business Association as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioner


Brief for Citizens Equal Rights Foundation and Central New York Fair Business Association as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioner


Brief for Citizens Equal Rights Foundation in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Citizens Equal Rights Foundation in Support of Respondent


Brief for Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington in Support of Respondent Edith Schlain Windsor


Brief for Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics In Washington, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, the American Library Association, the Association of Research Libraries, the National Security Archive, and Openthegovernment.Org in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Citizens United for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington in Support of Respondent


Brief for Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, English First, English First Foundation, U.S. Justice Foundation, the Senior Citizens League, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, Policy Analysis Center, U.S. Border Control Foundation, Constitution Party National Committee, and Institute on the Constitution in Support of Respondents


Brief for Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, et al in Support of Respondents


Brief for Citizens United, Citizens United Foundation, U.S. Justice Foundation, Free Speech Coalition, Free Speech Defense and Education Fund, Gun Owners of America, Inc., Gun Owners Foundation, Downsize DC Foundation, DownsizeDC.org, English First Foundation, Lincoln Institute for Research and Education, Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, Institute on the Constitution, Policy Analysis Center, and Constitution Party National Committee in Support of Petitioners


Brief for City of Dallas in Support of Petitioner


Brief for City of Irving, Texas, City of Hugo, Oklahoma, and Hugo Municipal Authority in Support of Petitioner


Brief for City of New York in Support of Respondent


Brief for City of Oklahoma City and Oklahoma City Water Utilities Trust in Support of Respondents


Brief for Civil Procedure and Complex Litigation Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for Civil Procedure and Securities Law Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Civil Procedure and Securities Law Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for Civil Procedure Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Civil Procedure Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Civil Procedure Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Civil Procedure Scholars in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Civil Procedure Scholars in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Civil Procedure Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Civil Rights Organizations in Support of Respondents and Affirmance


Brief for Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles in Support of Respondents


Brief for Civil Rights Under Law and the National Fair Housing Alliance, Et Al, in Support of Respondent


Brief for Class Respondents Paloma Gaos, et al.


Brief for CLS Bank International in Support of Neither Party


Brief for CME Group Inc., TD Ameritrade Inc., and Intercontinental Exchange Inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, Equality Now, et al., in Support of Reversal


Brief for Coalition for Government Procurement in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Coalition for the Protection of Marriage in Support of Hollingsworth and Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group Addressing the Merits and Supporting Reversal


Brief for Cochise County Sheriff Larry A. Dever in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Coherus Biosciences, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Colegio de Abogados y Abogadas de Puerto Rico and the Puerto Rican Bar Association, Inc., in Support of Respondents


Brief for Collaboration on Government Secrecy in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Colony Brands, Inc. as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Colorado and 40 Other States, Two United States Territories, and the District of Columbia as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioner


Brief for Colorado in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Colorado River Indian Tribes and National Congress of American Indians in Support of Respondent


Brief for Colorado State Board Of Education and Colorado Department of Education in Support of Respondent


Brief for Columbia Law School Sexuality and Gender Law Clinic in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Comic Book Legal Defense Fund in Support of Respondent


Brief for Committee of Interns and Residents SEIU; Doctors Council SEIU; and Korean American Medical Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Committee of Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Common Cause and the Campaign Legal Center, Inc. in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Common Cause and the Voting Rights Institute as Amici Curiae Supporting Appellees


Brief for Common Cause Appellees


Brief for Common Cause in Support of Appellees


Brief for Common Law Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Common Sense Media in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Commonwealth Lawyers Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for Communications Workers of America, Greenpeace, NAACP, Sierra Club, American Federation of Teachers, Main Street Alliance, Ourtime.Org, People for the American Way Foundation, Rock the Vote, U.S.PIRG, Working Families Organization and Demos in Support of Appellee


Brief for Community Bankers Association of Illinois in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Community Voter Registration Organizations in Support of Respondents


Brief for Comparative Law Scholars and French Supreme Court Justice in Support of Petitioner on the Issue of Extraterritorial Extradition


Brief for Compassion and Choices in Support of Respondents


Brief for Competition Law Professors, Southwestern Law Student Andrew Pletcher, And Professor Michael M. Epstein, in Association with the Amicus Project at Southwestern Law School, in Support of the Respondent


Brief for Competitive Carriers Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Competitive Enterprise Institute & Former State Department Officials in Support of Respondent


Brief for Complex Litigation Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Comptel in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Computer & Communications Industry Association and Mozilla Corporation in Support of Respondent


Brief for Computer & Communications Industry Association in Support of Respondents


Brief for Computer & Communications Industry Association; Newegg, Inc.; Pinterest; Quantum Corporation; and Ringcentral, Inc. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Concerned Women for America and Susan B. Anthony List in Support of Respondents


Brief for Concerned Women for America in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Concerned Women for America in Support of Reversal


Brief for Conejo Valley Bar Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Conejo Valley Bar Association in Support of Neither Party


Brief for Conference of Catholic Bishops, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Missouri Catholic Conference, National Catholic Educational Association, the Salvation Army National Corporation, and General Synod of the Reformed Church in America


Brief for Conference of Chief Justices in Support of Respondent


Brief for Conflict of Law Scholars in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Congressman Canseco in Support of Appellants


Brief for Congressman Steve Stockman, Former ATF Assistant Director Robert E. Sanders, Gun Owners Foundation, U.S. Justice Foundation, Gun Owners of America, Inc., Institute on the Constitution, Lincoln Institute for Research and Education, Abraham Lincoln Foundation, Conservative Legal Defense and Education Fund, Downsize DC Foundation, DownsizeDC.org, Policy Analysis Center, Oregon Firearms Federation, and Virginia Citizens Defense League in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Connect and the San Diego Intellectual Property Law Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Connecticut and 26 Other States in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Connecticut and 28 Other States in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Connecticut and 34 Other States in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Connecticut Health Insurance Exchange D/B/A Access Health CT in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Connecticut Trial Lawyers Association & American Association for Justice in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center and Institute for Justice in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of App


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioner Riley and Respondent Wurie


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondents


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of the Government


Brief for Constitutional Accountability Venter in Support of Appellees


Brief for Constitutional and Administrative Law Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional and Local Government Law Scholars Michelle Wilde Anderson, Richard Briffault, Richard Thompson Ford, Sheila Foster, Gerald E. Frug, Daniel B. Rodriguez, Richard C. Schragger, and Rick Su in Support of the Cantrell Respondents


Brief for Constitutional and Property Law Scholars in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Constitutional Law and Economics Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Law and Federal Courts Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Constitutional Law Professors as Amici Curiae in Support of Appellees


Brief for Constitutional Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Constitutional Law Professors, the Judicial Education Project, and Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars and Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondents


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars and Constitutional Accountability Center in Support of Respondents


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars Ashutosh Bhagwat, Lee Bollinger, Erwin Chemerinsky, Walter Dellinger, Michael C. Dorf, Lee Epstein, Daniel Farber, Barry Friedman, John C. Jeffries, Jr., Lawrence Lessig, William Marshall, Frank Michelman, Jane S. Schacter, Suzanna Sherry, Geoffrey R. Stone, David Strauss, Laurence Tribe, and William Van Alstyne in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars Ashutosh Bhagwat, Lee Bollinger, Erwin Chemerinsky, Walter E. Dellinger III, Michael C. Dorf, Daniel Farber, Barry Friedman, Pamela S. Karlan, Gillian E. Metzger, Frank Michelman, Jane S. Schacter, Suzanna Sherry, Reva Siegel, Geoffrey R. Stone, David A. Strauss, and Laurence Tribe in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars Bruce Ackerman, Ash Bhagwat, Lee Bollinger, Erwin Chemerinsky, Michael C. Dorf, Lee Epstein, Barry Friedman, John C. Jeffries, Jr., Lawrence Lessig, William Marshall, Frank Michelman, Jane S. Schacter, Suzanna Sherry, Geoffrey R. Stone, David Strauss, Laurence Tribe, and William Van Alstyne in Support of Respondent Edith Schlain Windsor


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Petitioner United States


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Petitioners (Minimum Coverage Provision)


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Law Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Constitutional Law, Federal Courts, Citizenship, and Remedies Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Constitutional, Administrative, Contracts, and Health Law Scholars in Support of Respondents


Brief for Consumer Action and National Association of Consumer Advocates in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Consumer Data Industry Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Consumer Data Industry Association in Support of Petitioners and for Reversal of the Ninth Circuit's Judgment


Brief for Consumer Data Industry Association, The National Association of Professional Background Screeners, Reed Elsevier Inc., and The National Association of Screening Agencies in Suppport of Petitioner


Brief for Consumer Energy Alliance, NATSO, Inc., American Trucking Associations, Petroleum Marketers Association of America, Energy Corporation, and International Liquid Terminals Association in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Consumer Respondents


Brief for Consumer Watchdog in Support of Respondents


Brief for Consumers... Research in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Contract Law Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for Contracts Professors in Support of Respondent


Brief for Cook County in Support of Respondent


Brief for Coolidge-Reagan Foundation in Support of Appellant


Brief for Copyright Alliance and Various Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Cornell Securities Law Clinic as Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment Below


Brief for Corporate and Criminal Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Corporate Law Professors in Support of Respondents


Brief for Corrections and Law Enforcement Personnel in Support of Appellees


Brief for Cory R. Maples in Support of Respondent


Brief for Cosal-The Committee to Support the Antitrust Laws in Support of Respondents


Brief for Costas Panagopoulos, Ph.D., Ryan D. Enos, Ph.D., Conor M. Dowling, Ph.D. and Anthony Fowler in Support of Respondent


Brief for Costco Wholesale Corporation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Costco Wholesale Corporation, LG Electronics Inc., Retail Litigation Center, Inc., SK Hynix Inc., And Western Digital Corporation In Support Of Petitioner


Brief for Council for Christian Colleges & Universities, Cardinal Newman Society, Pacific Justice Institute, Belmont Abbey College, Benedictine College, Colorado Christian University, John Paul the Great Catholic University, Liberty University, Northeast Catholic College, Southern Nazarene University, St. Gregory's University, The Thomas More College of Liberal Arts, and Wyoming Catholic College in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Council for Responsible Genetics in Support of Respondent


Brief for Council of Fashion Designers of America, Inc. in Support of Respondent; Amicus Brief for Council of Fashion Designers of America, Inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates, Children and Adults with Attentiondeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and the California Association for Parent-Child Advocacy in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Council of State Governments, International City/County Management Association, and International Municipal Lawyers Association in Support of Respondent


Brief for Council on State Taxation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Council on State Taxation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Council on State Taxation in Support of Respondent


Brief for Council on State Taxation in Support of Respondent


Brief for County of Santa Clara, California; the City of Austin, Texas; the City of Baltimore, Maryland; the City of Beaverton, Oregon; the City of Berkeley, California; the City of Boston, Massachusetts; the City of Bridgeport, Connecticut; the Town of Carrboro, North Carolina; the Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina; the City of Charleston, South Carolina; the City of Cincinnati, Ohio; the City of Columbia, South Carolina; The County of Dallas, Texas; The District of Columbia; the City of Durham, North Carolina; the City of Flagstaff, Arizona; the City of Gainesville, Florida; the City of Hallandale Beach, Florida; The City of Laredo, Texas; The City of Los Angeles, California; the City of Madison, Wisconsin; the City of Miami Beach, Florida; the City of Minneapolis, Minnesota; the County of Monterey, California; The County of Multnomah, Oregon; The National League of Cities; the City of New Haven, Connecticut; the City of New York, New York; the City of Oakland, California; the City of Omaha, Nebraska; the City of Palo Alto, California; the Mayor of the City of Phoenix, Arizona; the City of Portland, Oregon; the City of Providence, Rhode Island; the City of Saint Paul, Minnesota; Salt Lake City, Utah; the City and County of San Francisco, California; the City of San Jose, California; the City of San Leandro, California; the City of San Luis, Arizona; the County of San Mateo, California; the City of Seattle, Washington; the City of Tualatin, Oregon; the City of Tucson, Arizona;the United States Conference of Mayors and the National Legaue of Cities in Support of Respondent


Brief for Court Appointed Amicus in Support of Judgment


Brief for Court-Appointed Amica Curiae


Brief for Court-Appointed Amica Curiae in Support of Judgment


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae Arguing Against Jurisdiction


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment Below


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae in Support of the Judgment Below


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae James A. Feldman in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae Stephen B. Kinnaird Defending the Judgment Below


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae Supporting Complete Severability


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus Curiae Supporting Reversal


Brief for Court-Appointed Amicus on the Second Question in Support of Judgment Below


Brief for Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Criminal Justice Legal Foundation in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Criminal Justice Organizations and Scholars in Support of Respondent


Brief for Criminal Law Professors in Support of Petitioner Riley and Respondent Wurie


Brief for Criminal Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Criminal Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Criminal Law Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for CropLife America in Support of Affirmance


Brief for CropLife International in Support of Respondents


Brief for Croplife International in Support of Respondents


Brief for Cross-Respondents COFINA Senior Bondholders' Coalition


Brief for CTIA - The Wireless Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for CTIA- The Wireless Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for CTIA-The Wireless Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for CTIA-The Wireless Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for CTIA-The Wireless Association in Support of Petitioner


Brief for CTIA-The Wireless Association, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Current and Former Corrections Professionals in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Current and Former Directors of Publicly Traded Companies: Charles M. Elson and Howard B. Wiener in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Current and Former Members of Congress and Staff in Support of Respondent


Brief for Current and Former Members of Congress in Support of Affirmance


Brief for Current and Former Members of Congress in Support of Respondent


Brief for Current and Former Members of Congress in Support of Respondents


Brief for Current and Former Members of Congress in Support of Respondents


Brief for Current and Former Senior Puerto Rico Officials in Support of Respondents


Brief for Current and Former Student Body Presidents of University of Texas at Austin in Support of Respondents


Brief for Current United States Senators Sheldon Whitehouse, Lindsey O. Graham, Ted Cruz, and Christopher A. Coons in Support of Respondents


Brief for DACA Recipient Respondents, Make the Road New York, County of Santa Clara, and Service Employees International Union Local 521


Brief for Dale R. Cook, Pro Se, in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Dalton J. Oldham in Support of Appellees


Brief for Daniel S. Burks and Reynolds Properties, L.P. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Daryl M. Paton in Support of Petitioner


Brief for David A. Fruchtman as Amicus Curiae Supporting Neither Party


Brief for David B. Nolan, Sr. in Support of the Respondent


Brief for David Benkof, Robert Oscar Lopez, and Doug Mainwaring in Support of Petitioners and Supporting Reversal


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Petitioner


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Petitioner


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Petitioners


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Petitioners, on the Non-Jurisdictional Issues


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Respondent


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Respondent


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Respondents


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Respondents


Brief for David Boyle in Support of Respondents


Brief for David Orentlicher in Support of Neither Party


Brief for David R. Riemer and Community Advocates in Support of Petitioners Regarding the Minimum Coverage Provision


Brief for David W. Opderbeck and Erik Lillquist in Support of Respondents


Brief for Daycon Products Company, Inc., in Support of Respondent


Brief for DBA International in Support of Respondent


Brief for DBA International, Inc. in Support of Petitioner and For Reversal of the Decision of the Court Below


Brief for Dean Robert Post and Dean Martha Minow in Support of Respondents


Brief for Deans and Professors of Public Health and Organizations Working in Public Health Policy and Implementation in Support of Respondents


Brief for Deborah A.DeMott in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Deborah A.DeMott in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Defenders of Wildlife, the Center for Biological Diversity, and the National Wildlife Federation in Support of Respondent


Brief for DeKalb County Pension Fund in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Delaware, Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, District Of Columbia, Florida, Guam, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Delaware, Massachusetts, and New Mexico in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Dell, Acushnet, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, Applied Materials, ASUStek, BJ's Wholesale Club, Canon, CCIA, Cisco Systems, CTIA, Demandware, Dropbox, Ebay, Fairchild Semiconductor, Global Automakers, Google, HPE, HTC, Intel, the Internet Association, JCPenney, L Brands, Limelight Networks, LinkedIn, Micron, National Retail Federation, Netflix, Newegg, PegaSystems, QVC, Rackspace, Red Hat, Ricoh, Samsung, SAP, SAS, Seagate, Symmetry, Toyota, Varian, Vizio, and Xerox in Supporto Respondent


Brief for Dell, Applied Materials, BJ~s Wholesale Club, Inc., CCIA, CTIA, Facebook, Global Automakers, HP, HTC, the Internet Association, JCPenney, Limelight Networks, MGA Entertainment, Micron, National Retail Federation, QVC, Rackspace, Red Hat, Samsung Electronics, Sandisk, SAS, Varian Medical Systems, Vizio, and Xerox in Support of Respondents


Brief for DeLorme in Support of Respondent


Brief for Delta Air Lines, Inc., in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Democratic Members of the United States House of Representatives in Support of Appellee


Brief for Democrats for Life and the National Legal Foundation in Support of Respondents


Brief for Democrats for Life of America and Clergy for Better Choices in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Demographers Peter A. Morrison, Thomas M. Bryan, William A. Clark, Jacob E. Siegel, David A. Swanson, and the Pacific Research Institute in Support of Appellants


Brief for Denver Metro Chamber of Commerce, et al., as Amici Curiae in Support of Respondents


Brief for Detained Legal Services Providers in Support of Respondents


Brief for Dick Thornburgh, Drew S. Days, Iii, John R. Dunne, Bill Lann Lee, J. Stanley Pottinger, Paul F. Hancock, James P. Turner, William R. Yeomans, Brian K. Landsberg, and Gilda R. Daniels in Support of Respondents


Brief for DIGITALEUROPE, BITKOM, TECH IN France, Syntec Numerique, and Other European National Trade Organizations as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondent


Brief for Direct Action for Rights and Equality (DARE), Ex-Prisoners and Prisoners Organizing for Community Advancement (EPOCA), Voices of Community Activists & Leaders-New York (VOCAL-NY) and Voice of the Ex-Offender (VOTE) in Support of Appellees


Brief for DirectTV, Inc., Comcast Corp., and Dell Inc., in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Disability Rights Organizations and Public Interest Centers in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Discover Financial Services as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Dish Network L.L.C. and Echostar Technologies L.L.C. in Support of Respondent


Brief for Distinguished Law Professors in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Distinguished Law Professors in Support of Petitioners


Brief for DNA Saves, Bring BRI Justice Foundation, Keep Georgia Save, the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network, and the Surviving Parents Coalition in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Doctor's Council S.E.I.U. in Support of Respondent


Brief for Dolby Laboratories, Inc. in Support of Respondent


Brief for Dominican Sisters of Mary, Mother of the Eucharist, Sister of Life, and the Judicial Education Project in Support of Petitioners


Brief for Donald R. Miller, Jr., in His Capacity as the Independent Executor of the Will and Estate of Charles J. Wyly, Jr. in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Donald W. Dawes and Phyllis C. Dawes in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Douglas County School District and Douglas County School Board in Support of Petitioner


Brief for Douglas Emmett, Inc. in Support of Respondents


Brief for Douglas Laycock, Mark P. Gergen, and Douglas Rendleman in Support of Neither Party

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